Importance of Vesalius:
- Moved people on from studying Galen.
- Brought about change in medical thinking.
- Helped establish surgery as a separate profession.
- Taught at Padua.
- Made dissection of humans more acceptable.
- Improved anatomical drawings and reference books.
- Was not able to prove himself that the heart was a pump.
- He marked the end of Galen's influence on anatomy.
- Worked on the idea that blood circulated around the body.
- Reduced the power of Church through dissection.
- Made little difference at the time - blood letting remained popular.
- Encouraged others to investigate circulation.
- Essential to the understanding of the body.
- Considered eccentric.
- Only until better quality microscopes were discovered that people accepted (after his death).
- First person ever to immunise disease.
- Affected Pasteur and Koch 100yrs later.
- Saved lives from smallpox (biggest killer 15%)
- People thought it was going against religion.
- He was not able to explain why or apply it to other diseases.
- Many doctors were against his ideas.
- Did not eradicate disease.
- He scientifically proved how disease was caused.
- He was finally able to explain how Jenner's vaccines worked.
- Led to improved public health.
- He proved religion wrong.
- Led to vaccinations being found.
- Magic Bullets led on from Germ Theory.
- As he was a scientist rather than a doctor he was not able to turn his results into treatment until Koch developed it further.
- He proved germs were the cause of disease (built on Pasteur's work).
- Found the specific bacterium that caused disease.
- Discovered vaccine for Anthrax and Cholera.
- He finally laid rest to miasma theory.
- Koch developed the right methods to discover.
- "As soon as the right methods were found, discoveries came as easily as ripe apples from a tree".
- Believed in miasma for the majority of his work.
(Elizabeth) Garrett Anderson
- First woman doctor to become a qualified physician.
- Paved the way for other women.
- Started St. Mary's Dispensary School for Women.
- First and only woman member of British Medical Council.
- Still some gender prejudice.
- Did not actually move medicine forward.
- Saved no lives.
- Revolutionised the profession of nursing.
- She trained and educated women.
- Improved the conditions in hospitals during the Crimean War.
- Reduced deaths by infection.
- Before Pasteur so could not explain.
Crick and Watson
- Discovered double helix structure of DNA
- Scientists could prove how DNA replicates itself so consistently.
- Led to advances in genetic understanding (Human Genome mapped in 2000)
- Technology and nanoscience improved.
- Lots of ethical issues surrounding.
- Has not affected many cures (only understanding).
- Relevant cure - WW1
- Worked effectively.
- Technology wasn't advanced enough at the time to separate penicillin from the mould.
- Florey and Chain completed his work ten years later.