Youth Groups for Girls
Ages 10-14: Jungmadelbund (German Youth Maidens)
Ages 14-18: Bund Deutsche Madel (League of German Maidens)
Focused on PE, German History, Politics, Domestic Science (like food tech), Racial Science and Eugenics (to teech about how to 'breed' pure Germans) and German.
Girls were also taught about how to be good women, mothers and wifes. They had to have a good phsical fitness.
- Girls were trained to be the perfect German
- Young children had only known the Nazi way of life
Youth Groups for Boys
Ages 6-10: Pimpfen (German Little Fellows)
Ages 10-14: Jungvolk (German Young People)
Ages 14-18: Hitler Jugend (Hitler Youth)
Ages 18-25: A period of 6 months or a year Labour Service, to be completed by the age of 25 but normally done by the age of 19. After 1935 2 years compulsary Military Service
Focused on PE, German History, Geography and German.
- Boys were trained to become the perfect german
- Children had only known the Hitler way of life
- Boys like the uniform and the importance of being in the Hitler Youth
The Nazi Youth Movement
- The Nazis had started their youth movements in the 1920's. From 1933 young people were encouraged to join these organuisations, from 1936 it became almost impossible not to join. From 1939 it was compulsory by law
- Being in the Hitler Youth became compulsory
- Nazis put a lot of effort into getting the youth on their side
- Children started telling the Nazis about Jewish people and people who spoke badly of the Nazis, during there youth meetings
- People started creating and joining anti-Nazi youth groups
- The Nazi tried to influence young people in 3 ways: through their family life, in the youth movements it created and at school
* The Youth movements were used to indoctrinate children in Nazi ideology. The Hitler Youth also prepared boys for the army and to be strong and prepared for sacrifice. The League of German Maiden, the equivilant girl group, was seen as being less important, because they were not being trained for the army. The girls still had to do lots of sporting activities, but were only really being trained to be good and loyal mothers.
Anti-Nazi Youth Groups
Swing Youth: A group of jazz & swing lovers in Germany in the 1930's, based mainly in Hamburg and Berlin. Aged 14-18 year old boys & girls in high school. Most middle or upper class students, some apprentice workers as well. Liked the American & British way of life, defining themselves in Swing music, opposed Hitler Youth & Idiology. Became very dangerous to be apart of the Swing Youth.
The White Rose group: Formed by students at the University of Muich in 1941. Group decided to adopt the strategy of passive resistance. Several members had served in the German Army before resuming their studies so had inside information about the SS.
The Edelweiss Pirates: Emerged in Western Germany out of the German Youth Movement of the late 1930's in response to the strict regimentation of the Hitler Youth. Consisted of young people, mainly ages of 14-18, had either evaded the Hitler Youth by leaving or avoiding the Reich Labour Service & military service.