9th November 1918
The Weimar Republic was formed.
28th June 1919
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles facts
G-ulit= Find someone to blame.
A-rmed Forces= To be dealt with in Germany.
R-eparations= Who has to pay.
German Territories= What to do.
League of Nations= To be formed.
Treaty of Versailles facts and figures.
Guilt= Put on Germany
Armed forces= Amy of just 100, 000 men
-Navy of 6 battleships
Reparations= Germany had to pay £6.6billion (for damage done by war)
German Territories= Germany lost land in Europe.
-German colonies were given to France and Britain.
League of Nations= An international forum to settle disputes by discussion (not war).
Occupation of the Ruhr and Hyperinflation
Occupation of the Ruhr facts
-Germany was falling behind with reparation payments.
-France and Belgium then decided to invade the Ruhr
-German workers in the Ruhr resisted (PASSIVE RESISTANCE)
-Germany loses the Ruhr that produces; goods, raw materials and coal.
-Germany became poorer and workers began to not be paid.
-Government did not have enough money for passive resistance so they printed MORE money.
-This causes value of money to go down and value of goods to go up.
-In 1923 so much money was printed and this meant it went from inlfation to hyperinflation making money worthless.
-People lost savings
-People's wages could not keep up with price rises.
-The German government got the blame for the price rises.
-Led by Hitler and 600 Nazis.
-In the burger Keller (beer hall)
-Where von Kahr, von seisser and von Lossow were attending a meeting.
-Hitler took hostage of them.
-Ludendorff allows them to make phone calls to family but they call the police and army instead.
-Beer hall chaos is therefore broken up
8th to 9th November 1923
The Munich Putsch.
Munich Putsch outcome.
-Despite failure Hitler went ahead with the march on Munich.
-Nazis had only 2,000 rifles
-16 Nazis killed.
-4 police killed.
-Nazi party banned.
-Hitler dissapeard for two days and then was arrested and put on trial for treason.
-Judges treated Hitler lightly.
-He was sent to prison for 5 years.
-There he wrong 'Mein Kampf'
-The Munich Putsch taught him that a violent approach wouldnt work.
-Stresseman introduced a new currency.
-USA loans and the new currency became the new answer for economic recovery (formed from the support of the Weimar Government).
-The Dawes plan= USA loans to assist recovery.
The Young Plan
The amount Germany had to pay reduced and the amount of time given extended to 59 years.
Wall street crash
The Wall street crash
-Money became worthless.
-Thousands of Germans business went bankrupt.
-Wall street crash stopped payments to Germany.
-German government could no longer pay off reparations of uphold German jobs.
Hitler appointed Chancellor.
How did Hitler become Chancellor.
1932- Hindenburg didnt get the 50% of the votes he needed during the election so Hitler could ake him to the 2nd round.
-Big businesses funded Hitler's party because they were scared of communism.
-Alfred Hindenburg permitted that the Nazis published articles attacking Hindenburg.
-The SA; disrupted opponent's meetings, brown uniforms to make them stand out and seem like the final solution.
-Hitler was a excellent speaker and was 'all things to all people'
-Presented himself as a law abiding citizen.
-Around 6 million unemployed.
-He used the depression to promise better things.
-When he stood against Hindenburg and lost this gained him 230 seats in the Reichstag making them the largest party.
27 Febuary 1933
The Reichstag Fire
-One week before the election the Reichstag was set on fire.
-The Nazis arrested Marinus van der Lubbe (A dutch communist)
-Hitler and Goebbels claimed that the communitst were about to stage a take over.
-Hitler was allowed to asked for an 'Enabling Act'.
Hitler convinced Hindenburg to sign the-
'Decree for the protection of people and state'
-This suspended basic civil rights.
-Communist and socialist newspapers
-Despite imprisoning opponenents they fail towin a majority.
-Next they formed a coalition party with a National party in attempt to win majority.
-HE GETS THE ENABLING ACT FOR FOUR YEARS ON MARCH 23RD 1933
30 June 1934
The Night of the Long Knives
The Night of the Long Knives Reasons
Hitler wanted to get rid of Rohm because this would;
-create less socialism.
-Get rid of oppositon of the army.
-Rumours were going around that he attempted to murder Hitler.
The Night of Long Knives
-Hitler got friends to make 'Hit- lists' of disloyal SA men. (Himmer, Heydrich and Goering.
-Hitler heres from Himmler that Rohm was about to seize power.
-SS and police arrest dozes of the SA.
-Many shot dead in homes.
-Others taken to concentration camps for execution.
-Rohm jailed and then shot the next day by the SS.
-Strasser was shot.
-Schleicher was killed.
(400 IMPORTANT PEOPLE KILLED WITHIN 2 DAYS)
Significance of the Night of Long Knives
-SS had become more significant than the SA
-Secured support of the German Army
-Clear terror would play a big part in Hitler's rule
-Potential opponents removed.
2nd August 1934
Death of Hindenburg
Death of Hindenburg.
-Hitler combined the 2 roles of chancellor and president.
-Making him Fuhrer.
-In Refrendum on the 19th August more than 90% of the votes agreed with this action.
2nd August 1934
Oath of Loyalty
Oath of Loyalty
-Each member of the German armed forces (Wehrmacht) swore an oath of personal allegiance to Adolf Hitler -- and not to the constitution.
-This oath went into effect on 2 August 1934