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Nazi Germany GCSE

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The Political Spectrum

Capitalism- rich get large amounts of money/ wealth, poor get hardley anything

Communism- equal amounts of wealth/ money etc

Left of Spectrum- Socialism, cooperation, deal things out fairly, lack freedom, make people lazy; STALIN ON THIS SIDE- COMMUNISM

Right of Spectrum- freedom, competition, unfair on those that are unlucky- HITLER ON THIS SIDE- CAPITALISM

Extreme dictatorship- secret police, no elections, one political party, censorship, propoganda

Moderate/democratic- free elections, many political parties, no censorship, police obey rules

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The Treaty of Versailles


-Germany had to pay reperations to their allies. Fixed in 1921 at 6600 million

-Germany lost all of its colonies. The 11 German colonies in Africa and far east given to victorious countries

-German military forces were cut; army limited to 100,000 navy only had 6 battleships, 12 destroyers and 12 torpedo boats, no airforce was allowed, the rhineland was demilitarised, Germans not allowed in

-Germany lost land; Alsace and Lorraine lost to France, Posen and West Prussia were lost to Poland ,caused Germany to split in two, plebiscites took place in many areas to decide if they should stay in Germany, upper silsia became part of Poland, Northen Schlewig became part of Denmark

-The German port Danzig, was made an international city

-Germany lost; 13% of its European territory, 50% of its iron and 15% or coal supply

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Weimar Republic- Terms of the Constitiuation

- Local Government- Run but 18 regions of Germany, Central Government given more power than before

- The Reichstag was the new dominant house in parliment; members were elected every 4 years, all men and women could vote over the age of 20, using a secret ballot

-Proportional representation was used, number of reichstag seats given depended on the percentage of votes they gained

-The Reichsrat was the other political party in government, a number of members were sent by each local reigon, depending on its size, the reichsrat could delay new laws unless overruled by a 2/3 majority of the Reichstag

- The chancellor was the head of government, chose ministers and ran the country, to pass laws he needed majority vote from Reichstag

- President was head of state,elected every 7 years, took no part in day to day government, chose the chancellor,  dismiss the Reichstag, call new elections, assume control or army,  under article 48 could suspend constitution, pass laws by degree

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The Weimar Constitiuation


-Members of Reichstag elected ever 4 years

-All men and women over 20 could vote

-Using proportional representation  the number of seats was equal to votes

-The chancellor needed supprt before passing laws

-The Reichsrat could delay new laws unless overruled

-Women were given the vote, more fair


-The president could pass new laws om an "emergancy" without support

-President didn't take part in day to day government

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Problems for the Weimar Republic

Bankruptcy- Germans were Bankrupt due to having to pay large reperations, could not afford to pay for their countries ruins, by 1923 they could no longer pay reperations

Occupation of the Ruhr- French confiscated raw material, manufactured goods and industrial machinery, so the germans paid in machinery and production instead of marks, german government got their income form these machines, now got nothing

Inflation- Governemt produced and printed more money,all prices went up. Prices reached spectacular heights e.g. in 1919 a loaf of break cost one mark, in 1923 it cost 100,000 million marks

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Sparacist Uprising

Beliefs- communism- change in society-treat everyone equally-political power to workers- equality-oppose capitalism-abbolish private ownership of land- internationalists-cooperation of unions

Desires for Germany- overthrow Government- give workers opinion and voice- set up workers and soldiers soviets in local council towns in Germany

Key events

Cause- they wanted a revolution and didnt want the Kaiser back

Event- they took over many buildings such as the new buildings

Consequence- many supporters were killed and attacked

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Kapp putsch

Beliefs- capitalism-oppose communism-private ownership of buisness and land-stress importance of family unit- keep society stable-strong government- dominateed my powerful leaders

Desires for germany- overthrow weimar republic-bring back the kaisar-workers to go on strike- keep control of the city

Key events:

Cause- they wanted to overthorw the weimar republic and bring back the Kaiser

Event- they controlled the city and insisted that people went on strike

Consequence- Kapp was unable to government and fled when he was then killed

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The "Golden Twenties" card 1

-Between 1923 and 1929

Gustev Stressman- chancellor in 1923, supported by moderates

Stressmans economic achievements:

Currency- abolished existing currency "marks" to the "Rentanmark" before setting up a new inderpendant bank, the Reichbank

The Dawes Plan-Stressman reached an agreement with American banker Charles Dawes. Annual payments were reduced to an affordable level, american banks invested in German industry

Stressmans international affairs achievements

Locarno pact-Treaty between Germany, Britan, France,Italy and Belgium. Germany agreed to keep its 1919 border with France and Belgium, only in return for Allies leaving Rhineland, France promising peace and Germany joining league of nations

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The "Golden Twenties" card 2

The League of Nations- Stressman persuaded the allies to allow Germany to join the league of nations in 1926. Important decisions made on this council

The Young Plan- 1929- Dawes plan didn't work- gave Germany longer to pay reparations and the amount they had to pay was reduced, went for 6.6 billion to 2 billion 

Kellog Briand Pact 1928- Germany signed agreement along with 65 other counties promising not to use war to achieve their aims

Can Dogs Yell Loudley Like Kangeroos

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Hitlers early life

-Beaten by his father

-Became a rebel

-Forced to live on he streets

-Fought in the war

-Awarded the iron cross

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The Munich Putsch

-Occured in Novemeber 1923

-Led by Hitler

-Began at Burgerbrau Keuer in Munich

-Uprising against the German government

One key feature- poor economic systum in Germany at the time

Another key feature-involved violence and loss of life

Final key feature- NSDAP was banned

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The "Lean Years"

The Lean Years were a time during the Golden Twenties when no body need the Nazis due to everyone listening to Stressman

Ways in which Hitler brrought sucess to Nazi party in these years:

-Influential people- Befriended Germanys most wealthy buiness men, worked with Dr Joseph Goebbels to improve party propoganda. SS was run by his personal bodyguard and one of his lyal supporters so he know it was in safe hands.

-How they got the message acrosss-Created scapegoats and promoted Hitler as the voice of the Nazi party. Most modern up to date technology used to communicate and keep Hitler in the public eye and create an image of strength

-Finances-Befriended Germanys most wealthy buisness men, limited the power of trade unions, recieved donations from giants of German industry

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Growth of Nazi Support 1

Nazi votes:

May 1928-1 million

Sept 1930-6 million

July 1932-13 million

Hitlers appeal-thought of as a man that could unite the country, restore order,get rid of treaty of versailles.

Strength of the SA-SA used to control large groups of people,made the NSDAP look strong, made people believe party was reliable and trustworthy in middle of crisis

Working class support-promised break for work,largest group of voters so hitler used this to his advantage

Middle class support-Middle class wanted communist protection, saw hitler as stong leader who could help country recover, wanted tradition and values that nazi class supported

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Growth of Nazi Support 2

Young people and women- Hitler attracted young people by his passionate speeches and strong beliefs and ambitions. Propoganda appealed to women as claimed voting for NSDAP was good for country and families

Big buisnesses-protection from communists as they wanted to take away companies land, help create hitler nazi party propoganda against the communists

Farmers- hitler promised to protect farmers from communist party which would have confiscated their land.

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Hitlers "Road to Power" 1

March 1932- Hitler stood as candidate in the presedential elections to increase personal power

April 1932-No candidates recieved more than 50% of the vote, so it was repeated again. Hindenburg re-elected, Hitlers votes grew by 13 million. Ban on SS and SA was set, angered right wing parties. Bruning who set ban was fired.

May 1932-Von Schliecher controlled the New Government, Franz Von Papen was chosen as figurehead. Von Paper made chancellor. Hitler made part of German Goverrnment

July 1932-The NSDAP won 230 seats after the election- making it the largest party. Hitler demanded that Hindenburg sacked Papen and appoint him instead, though Hindenburg detested Hitler so declined the advice

November 1932-Von Papen called an election in November, Nazi seats were reduced to 196, thought were still the largest party, Von Papen resigned

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Hitler "Road to Power" 2

December 1932-39 buisness tycoons sent letters to Hindenburg asking for Hitler to be appointed as chancellor. Hindenburg still opposed, Von Schleicher was appointed chancellor

Late December 1932-Von Schleicher was confident that Nazi support was fading, wanted Hindenburg to suspend the constitution and declare him head of military dictatorship. It was refused and his plot leaked out which lost him support

January 1933-Von Papen plotted agains Von Schleicher and told people that if they supported Hitler then they could make their own decisions. Hindenburg believed there was no alternative so appointed him. 


Key People

Hindenburg-President since 1925        Ernest Thailman-Communist leader

Bruining-Socialist chancellor       Kurt von Papen-Ambitious general

Franz von Papen-Ex general

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Hitlers removal of opposition 1933-1934

Night of the long knives- 1934 Hitler began to grow suspicious of those closest to him, so became in strict control of the SA and began killing those who he was suspicious of, which totaled 150 

The Reichstag Fire-Used the fire as an opportunity to attack the communist government. Hitler made Hindenburg declare a state of emergancy and claimed that van der Lubbe was part of a conspiricy again the Government. Hitler used this to take control over the government and to gain more seats in the Reichstag.

Trade Unions- potential source of opposition towards Hitler, and Hitler believed that if the communists thatw ere working among working men were able to control the different unions they would be used in strikes to do many things including undermining the government. In May 1933 Hitler banned trade union and made strikes illegal.

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Hitlers police state

Main Factor- concentration camps, main consequence that everyone was afraid  of, that everyone feared and nobody wanted to be in the position of going to one

The church didnt appear to have much significance as nothing happened with it and it only targeted a small amount of people

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Maddie Smith

lol their rubbish fam

Robyn Fowler

Maddie Smith wrote:

lol their rubbish fam

fanks fam, your not allowed to use dem coz you dissed dem

Sophie Vines

What does CDYLLK mean?

Aryeh Wolfson-West

absolutely fab!


These are really good :) thankyou x


The spelling mistakes were really bad and some of the information wasn't correct which could lose you marks and affect understanding. A decent amount of effort but I'd go back and have a look through it again :)

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