History GCSE (Britain) Liberal Reforms

History GCSE

Britain depth study 

Liberal Reforms 

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  • Created by: siobhan
  • Created on: 24-03-12 15:41

Liberal Reforms - Children

  • In 1906 local authories started providing free school meals.
  • In 1908 a Children and Yound person act was introduced, known as the Children's Charter.
  • If anyone neglected or treated children poorly they would get severe punishments.
  • It was made illegal for children to sell cigarettes to children or send the begging.
  • Juvenile courts were set up
  • Children who broke the law went to borstals instead of prision. 
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Liberal Reforms - Old age

  • In 1908 old people were given pensions
  • It was only for the over 70's.
  • They were given 5s a week.
  • A married couple got 7s 6d a week
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Liberal Reforms - Workers

  • In 1909 labour exchanges made to help people find work. 
  • In 1911 National Insurance Act was passed.
  • Part 1 gave people the right to free medical treatment (NHS) and sick pay.
  • They got 10s a week for 26 weeks in return for a payment of 4d a week.
  • Part 2 gave people the right to unemployment pay of 7s d a week for 15 weeks in return for a payment of 2 1/2d a week
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Reforms and reasons

  • 1906 - the Trades Disputes Act rules that unions were not liable for damages because of strikes. 
  • 1906 - the Workers Compensation Act granted compensation for injury at work. 
  • 1907 - school medical inspections.
  • 1908 - eight hour day for miners
  • 1910- half day a week off for shop workers
  • 1910 - a Merchant Shipping Act improved conditions for sailors.
  • 1911 - Mps were paid which gave working men an opportunity to stand for election
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Why did the Liberals make the reforms?

  • Seebohm Rowntree studies York in 1901 and found that 28% did not have the minimum to live on at some point in their life. 
  • Two thirds of men that volunteered in the Boer war (1899) were unfit to join up. 
  • Germany which had a good system of state welfare for workers was passing Britain as an industrial power
  • Strikes and the growth of trade unionism meant that politicians were scared workers would turn to Communism or rebellion if living conditions did not improve.
  • More working class voters were voting for the Labour Party because of it demands for welfare reform. 
  • In 1910 the Liberal Party did not get a majority of seats, which led to a coalition with Labour Party MP's
  • Many MP's wanted to 'wage war' on poverty, especially Lloyd George.
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Results on Liberal Reform

  • Free school meals - 1914 150, 000 were getting one good meal a day - not compulsory 
  • Pensions - Kept old people out of work houses - was refused to people who have never worked
  • Labour exchanges - 1914, 1 million people employed through Labour exchanges - most jobs temporary; government didn't increase number of jobs. 
  • National Insurance - Vital safety net to tide people over - Poor people had to pay contributions out of pay, dole and sickness pay limited time. not enough money most families need a £1 a week
  • Free medical treatment - literally a life saver - only for wage earner, not for children or wife 
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Results on Liberal reforms continued

1909 budget - to pay for reforms Lloyd George raised duties on alcohol and tobacco, raised income tax by 16% and introduced a new 20% tax on profits from selling land.

Parliament Act 1911 - when the House of Lords refused to pass Lloyd George's budget, the House of Commons passed an Act stating that the House of Lords could not reject a bill that had been passed three times in the House of Commons. It also require a general election every five, not seven, years.

Lloyd George - Lloyd George became loved - old people cried when they got their pension and blessed 'Lloyd George' who gave it to them - and hated - workers who objected to paying.



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