History Exam Module 1


  • Created by: Alice
  • Created on: 14-05-11 10:46

Hitlers aims in foreign policy

1. Destroy the Treaty of Versailles, rearm Germany, recover lost lands

2. Bring all German speaking people together under German control

3. Expand eastwards to create Lebensraum

4. Destroy Communism (USSR)

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The return of the Saar 1935

- After 15 years a plebiscite was held

- Nazi campaign to persuade voters to return to German control

- Nazi's used Stormtroopers for intimidation

- In January 1935 90% of the vote was to join with Germany

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The beginning of rearmament in Germany

- German withdrawal from the Disarmament Conference, 1933

- Hitler signed a non-aggression pact with Poland

- 1935, conscription introduced in Germany

- 1925, Anglo-German Naval Agreement

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The remilitarisation of the Rhineland 1936

- Hitler ordered 32,000 troops to march into the Rhineland, they were to turn back if stopped by GB or France

- Rhinelanders went wild with delight

- GB and France distracted by Mussolini's invasion of Abyssinia

- GB thought the Treaty of Versailles had been too harsh

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The Anschluss with Austria 1938

- Austrian leader arranged plebiscite to ask Austrian people whether they wanted a union with Germany

- German troops moved to Austrian border

- Austrian Nazis rioted the streets

- Nazis invited in to restore order and arrested more than 80,000 Nazi opponents

- Plebiscite held- 99.75% voted in favour of Anschluss

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- Treaty of Versailles too harsh

- Gives them time to rearm

- British people didn't want war

- Buffer for Communism


- Encouraged Hitler

- Made Germany stronger

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The Sudeten Crisis and Munich Agreement, 1938

- Hitler wanted the Sudetenland as it was rich in raw materials, contained many Germans, contained Czechoslovakia's defences

- Hitler encouraged the Nazis there to riot

- Chamberlain tried to bargain with Hitler not to take over

- At the Munich Agreement Chamberlain agreed Hitler could have the Sudetenland as long as he did not take the rest of Czechoslovakia (the Czechs and Stalin weren't consulted)

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The collapse of Czechoslovakia, March 1939

- The Czech president was forced to hand Czechoslovakia over after the Slovaks rioted

- End of appeasement

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The Nazi-Soviet Pact

- Agreed not to attack each other

- Agreed to divide Poland between them

- Hitler avoided a war on two fronts

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Poland and the outbreak of war

- Hitler still believed GB and France would back down if he invaded Poland

- GB and France declared war on Germany two days after Hiltler invaded Poland

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Conflicting Ideologies, 1945

- East (Soviet Union) = Communism

- West (USA) = Capitalism

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Yalta (February 1945)

- The 'Big Three' - Churchill, Stalin, Roosevelt

- Germany and Berlin to be in 4 zones

- Free elections in Eastern Europe

- United Nations set up to keep peace

- Disagreed about Poland's borders but Churchill and Roosevelt let Stalin have his way, if he didn't interfere with Greece

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- 'Big Three' except with Truman instead of Roosevelt

- Divisions of Germany and Berlin confirmed

- German-Polish border fixed

- Couldn't agree on:

  • Reparations
  • How to treat Germany
  • Governments of Eastern Europe
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Why there was more tension at Potsdam

- Truman was more suspicious of Stalin than Roosevelt had been

- Stalin feared Britain and USA would help Germany

- Stalin hadn't allowed London Poles in Poland, which he had said he would at Yalta

- USA told Stalin about their atomic bomb and then used it on Japan

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USA dropped an atomic bomb, 1945

- Hiroshima and Nagasaki

- Killed/seriously injured everyone near

- All vegetation destroyed

- Radiation stays in the body through generations and causes cancer

- Radiation sickness effected those who survived

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Stalin's expansion in Europe, 1945-46

- Stage 1 = Poland - rigged elections

- Stage 2 = Romania and Bulgaria - Red Army invaded + got rid of monarchy - Red Army invaded + rigged elections + abolished monarchy

- Stage 3 = Hungary - free election but ignored it when Communists lost + held another election and rigged it

- Stage 4 = Czechoslovakia - fair election + new rigged election + used armed forces and arrested + murdered foreign minister

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Iron Curtain Speech, 1946

- Made by Churchill

- Warned America of the dangers of Stalin's 'Iron Curtain' and the spread of Communism

- Wants to gain American support in case of a Communist take over in Europe

- Domino Theory

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Truman Doctrine, 1947

- Set of ideas laid down by Truman to support countries against Communist influence

- Main aim = 'containment'

- Lead to = no communist threat in Greece, Turkey avoided Communist take over + definite divide between East and West Europe

- Lead to Cominform

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Cominform, 1947

- Communist Information Bureau

- Main aim = to counter-act the Truman Doctrine

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Marshall Plan, 1947

- Gave money to countries in Europe

- Main aim = to make countries economically stable so that the idea of Communism won't appeal to them

- Was available to all countries but Stalin forbade Communist countries under his control from taking it

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Bizonia and Trizonia, 1947

- Bizonia = Britain and USA joined their sectors in Germany together and stopped taking reparations in order to aid recovery in West Germany

- Trizonia = France joined

- Stalin felt betrayed + becomes suspicious - at Yalta it had been agreed that any decisions about Germany would be taken jointly

- It was one of the causes of the Berlin Blockade

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Berlin Blockade, 1948

- Caused by Bizonia/Trizonia, Deutschmark + Marshall Aid

- Stalin blockaded the people of West Berlin - he cut off rail, road and canal supplies to the western zone of the city

- Stalin thouht that if he starved the people there enough, the western leaders would give in to his demands - give him the western sector of Berlin, give up the Deutschmark and give up their plans for a completely separate West Germany

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Berlin Airlift, 1948

- The West's solution to the blockade

- Planes brought food and other supplies from Western Germany to West Berlin through the air passages over East Germany

- Lasted 10 months

- Aircraft were landing and taking off very 90 seconds

- Stalin called off the Blockade
- Stalin appeared weak
- War was avoided
- No hope of a united Germany
- (1949) West becomes Federal Republic of Germany and the East becomes German Democratic Republic

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Comecon, 1949

- Council of Mutual Economic Assistance (Communist)

- A retaliation to Marshall Aid

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NATO, 1949

- North Atlantic Treaty Organisation - a military alliance between Capitalist countries that agreed to protect eachother against Communism

- Formed during the Airlift because Britain were worried about war and were under-defended against the Soviets

- Countries involved were USA, Britain and other non-communist countries in Europe

- Permenant presence of American troops in Europe
- Stalin saw it as an aggressive act and sped up his plans for Soviet nuclear bombs
- Stalin talked bout starting a war in Europe

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Russia developed an atomic bomb, 1949

- USSR has been working on this since the USA created one and refused to help them create theirs

- This was a detterant and a 'MAD situation' because both countries knew that if they attacked with nuclear weapons, they would be attacked straight back

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Korean War, 1950

- North Korea, Communist was run by the USSR and South Korea, Capitalist was run by the USA and they both thought that their ideology should run the whole of Korea

- War started when North Korea invaded the South

- South then got help from the UN and pushed North Korea back into the North

- China felt threatened and pushed the South Koreans back

- USA bring in more troops and pushed the North Koreans back to the 38th parallel where both sides were stuck until a ceasefire in 1953

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- Cold war is now in Asia as well
- Actual conflict has occured
- UN are now seen as a success

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The Warsaw Pact, 1955

- Soviet counter group to NATO 'friendship, co-operation and mutual existence'

- Soviet Union, Poland, Czechoslovakia and a few other countries

- Formed after West Germany was admitted to NATO

- Soviet Union cancelled their wartime alliances with Britain and France
- No chance of the countries making up

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Khrushchev and The 'Thaw'

- He closed down Cominform

- Publicly attacked Stalin for his terroristic dictatorship

- He seemed to allow countries in the Eastern Bloc more freedom

- He pursued a policy of De-Stalination and removed all things to do with Stalin

- He believed that Communism would triumph over Capitalism on its own and did not need aggression to do this

- Revolts against Communism were ruthlessly put down

- Continued the Nuclear Arms Race

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The Hungarian Uprising

- Lack of cultural freedom (government controlled media, arts & literature and children were taught Soviet history and not about Hungarian links with the West)

- Rule by fear (AVO - the secret police and no freedom of speech)

- Poor standards of living (industrial workers got bad pay and food shortages because everyone was made to work on Soviet farms)

- Presence of Soviet troops (resented Red Army in towns and made people uneasy)

What happened:
-Stalin imposed a Communist government on Hungary

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- Khrushchev comes into power in the USSR and made the leading Hungarian Communist, Rakoski, invite a Imre Nagy, a reformer, into the government

- Rakoski and Nagy argued and Nagy was thrown out of government

- Demonstrations and protests in Budapest led to the election of Imre Nagy as Prime Minister in October 1956

- Nagy immediately announced a programme of reform. Governmant control of the radio and press was ended. Non communists were allowed to participate in government and he announced that Hungary would leave the Warsaw Pact

- Khrushchev thought this was unacceptable so on 4th November 1956 the Red Army returned and crushed the Hungarian uprising

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Space Race, 1957-69

- Sputnik I was launched: October 1957

- Sputnik II was launched: November 1957

- NASA created: July 1958

- Explorer I launched by USA: January 1958

- USA put the first man on the moon, Neil Armstrong: July 1969

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U-2 Crisis, 1960

- Gary Powers flew a U-2 US plane on a spy mission for the CIA

- His aim was to fly over the USSR and get aerial photos of military bases

- He was shot down over Sverdlovsk and his mission discovered

- At first the USSR didn't tell the USA that they knew it was a spy plane, they just told them they had found a plane

- The USA tried to cover up and said it was a weather plane, but were of course found out

- This was the end of the 'thaw' in the Cold War

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The Berlin Wall, 1961

Stalin's motives:
- Stop people fleeing from East to West

- Stop people from East Berlin contributing to the West's economy

- Prove the divide is going to last

- East can't see how much better off the West are

- To show power

- Keep US spies out

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Long term causes:
- Bizonia and Trizonia
- Deutschmark
- East Berliners fleeing West

Short term causes:
- U-2 crisis meant the Paris Summit Meeting was cancelled so nothing was decided about Berlin so Stalin was free to do what he wanted
- US wouldn't move their armed forces from West Berlin

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Cuban Missile Crisis, 1962

- USSR started building Nuclear Missile bases on Cuba, 90 miles from USA, which the USA found out about

- Kennedy put a Naval Blockade on Cuba to stop more supplie from the USSR getting in

- Khrushchev sent Kennedy a letter saying the missiles are just defensive and then another letter saying he will remove the missiles if Kennedy removed his missiles from Turkey

- Kennedy ignores the first letter but accepts the terms of the second letter

- Both sets of nuclear missiles are removed, but the removal of the missiles in Turkey is kept a secret from the rest of the world

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Czechoslovakia, 1968

The Prague Spring:
- Leader of Czech Communist party, Dubcek, introduced a more relaxed version of Communism called 'Communism with a human face'

- Censorship of the the press and radio was removed

- Powers of the secret police were removed

- The borders with the west were opened and the Czechs could trade with them and travel there

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The USSR's response:
- Brezhnev Doctrine = if a people against Communism try and turn a country Capitalist, then all other Communist countries need to get involved and stop it, possibly by force

- 20th August 1968 Soviet tanks and other Warsaw Pact troops invaded Czechoslovakia

- Remembering what happened in Hungary, the Czech government didn't resist, so there was no fighting, only passive resistance by the people

- After about a year, the opposition died down; the Soviets had restored their control by force

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