How did Henry use parliament to esatblish the supr
Succesion Act 1534 - it declared that the only heirs of Henry VIII were his children of Anne Boleyn. Cranmer official condemnation of the Aragonese marriage was given offical backing and Parliament was told tha Cranmers judgement must be right as it was backed by universites such as Paris and Orleans. The Act also declared that Catherine was merley the widow of Prince Arthur and should be called 'Princess Dowager' and therefore this meant that Mary was illegimate. Penalties were harsh and everyone had to take an oath of the act.
Act of Supremacy 1534- repeated the message that the King was Supreme Head of the Church- this showed the Kings authority over the church and it was repeated again in an Act of 1536 'extinguishing authority of the Bishop of Rome'
The Treason Act 1534- enforced the penalites - anyone claiming that Henry was not head of the Church was now guilty of treason and could be executed - very few people were found guilty but it marked an extension of royal power
Why did Henry dissolve the monastries?
Financial advantages - King could grant himsef new Annates which were payments of the first years revenue of certain greater benefices which used to go to Rome.
Cromwells Plan for Dissolution- Jan 1535 Cromwell appopnted Vicegerent which meant he was Kings deputy in church affairs- he wanted to make Henry rich and the monastries would make a good financial target. The sudden disolution of monastries would be risky and damaging as never happened. Cromwell drew up a plan to destroy monastries without appealing to do so - commisoners visted churchs, cathedrals , and regualr churchers (monastries) , to supply a complete record of Churchs accumulated wealth and income. While others checked on corruption and spiritual degeneracy- people were told that the Kings aim was to reform the monastries not to destroy them
What did the reports on the monastries reveal? - Cromwell declared that many of the monastries fell short of the high standards expected- bad behaviour by monks and nuns, religious houses decayed. However only small monastries came out as being corrupt , as large monastries were clear and religion was flourishing and rules obeyed. The speed of comissioners indicated the monastries were not investigated properly- hard to claim King was wrong - (Tregonwells Report - was a balanced commissioner - and Cromwell could select evidence which could be used to condem smalelr monastries)
How did the King Justify the dissolution of smalle
Spring 1536 government presented with a bill which stated that smaller monastries should be closed down immediatley due to their sins (it was unlikley they were actually corrupt), however faced with it was hard to voice opposition. Cromwell claimed that that the monks from unhelathy smaller houses would be moved into larger and worthy institutions this presented Henry as a reformer while acting as a destroyer. The reason why Henry was closing the small monastries down was he wanted the money and wealth (this was hidden from Parliament due to cover up of corruption) - the act was passed through parilament without serious oppsoition
How were the monastries dissolved? - once they started to dissolve smaller ones they began to dissolve larger ones as wells as convinently the distinction to big and large monastries had be forgotten once they had started. Comissioners were sent to large houses were they demanded their surrender to the King - most abbots caved in ( no option). It becamed rumored that all monastries were being dissolved however Cromwell simply stated that it was happening voluntarily. Many religious housed believd they were being reformed not dissolved , other houses were made to pay stiff fines and told that in this way they could save their houses- abbots either surrender or punishment- offered pensions to those who did surrender their houses (bribe)
The plundering of the monasteries and the Second D
500 religious houses were dissolved and medeival artwork had been taken down to be melted for a profit. Lead was stripped from roofs and stone was taken from buildings - source of vandalism by Cromwell and Henry as Churches were left with nothing.The Act claimed that the abbeys appaled by their sins had voluntarily surrended by the King- Parliament could do nothing as most had already been dissolved. The sudden influx of goods and property to the Crown meant that Cromwell had to set-up a special financial court - 'the court of augmentations'- chancellor of court = Richard Rich
Overview of the dissolution - King and Cromwell destroyed monaticism - the speed which it all happened suggests that it was corrupt , unecessaery and unpopular- it had showed the power of the King
Financial Implications - aswell as pulling down abbeys for wealth he also recieved regular taxes from all clergy and his new bishoprics scheme- however all money was lost as Henry had to pay off debts to construct coastal defences against the possibilty of foreign invasion - in addition in the 1540s he went to war with france and scotland so just 11 years after the first dissolution crown finances were worse before the Henrician Reformation - plundering of church had been a waste of time - Archbishop cranmer believed that money from dissolution would be spent on poor and education
Opposition to Henrician Reformation (Supremacy & M
Holy Maid of Kent (1527-1534) = Elizabeth Barton , who was a serving girl she has religious visions (God cured her of an unpleasant disease)- in 1527 King went public with his marriage problems she started uttering terrifying prophesies about what would happen to the King and country if he continued to annul his marriage , in particular she stated that he marry Anne Bolyen he would die quickly - Wolsey , Warham and John Fisher were impressed and she was soon circled by people worried about what Henry was doing (cantenbury monks- Edward Bocking)- Bocking wanted to publish a book called The Nuns Book- Cromwell saw this as propaganda from the opposition , and had the Nuns and her friends arrested and staged a ceremony where her and her supporters would have to confess their crimes infront of a gathering leaders of the political nation- Barton and her friends were hung in April 1534 in Tyburn- impressive they managed to survive 7 years while making attacks on the state and kings policies. After 1533 those who attacked kings marriage with anne boleyn and refused to recognize their children as heirs , and support of mary to topple her father were guilty of treason.
Opposition to Henrician Reformation
Bishop Fisher - he had vocally opposed th Kings attempts to annul the Aragon marriage right from the start - he displayed courage by deilvering sermons and wrote books denouncing the Kings aims (showed bravery)- however Fisher refused to take the oath of succession and was sen to tower but held back with execution (feared opposition if killed a national figure ) - however - fisher was beheaded in 1535 and his heas was place on London Bridge & then thrown in to the river - (last straw was linking Fishers opposition with real danger of invasion from abroad - Pope awarded Fisher Cardinal Hat) - his death showed that attempts to reach a settlement with Rome was unlikley
Sir Thomas Moore - Chancellor of England - he resigned in his office over the submission of the clergy - he also refused to take the oath of succession however unlike fisher he refused to say why he would not take it. - however he could not be found guilty of treason as he had never 'maliciously' denounded the title as Supreme head of the Church in England - so he could only be imprisoned - in prison for a year and then brough to trial- Ricahrd Rich claimed that he had heard More denying the Kings Supremacy in the Tower. - trial was rigged .More had never denied the Kings title or offered any overt oppostion to the regime- at his execution he claimed that he died 'the Kings good servant , but Gods first'-
Opposition to Henrician Reformation
Opposition of Carthusian Monks- they denied the royal supremacy over the church that the King could not even be head of the church. - three priors and Richard Reynolds and John Hale were executed- (given last minute offer to change their minds they refused) so each were hanged , cut down while still alive and disembowelled- butchered in turn so had to watch eachother- thousands gathered to watch many outraged however some it would encourage people not to behave like this. However still monks refused to accept and in may 1535 3 more monks were locked in the tower (iron collar around neck and held legs) for 17 days - a few days later they were executed- sum did accept but 10 more monks were starved to death- cruelty which was rarley seen- henrician regime no opposition would be tolerated and wanted loyalty and approval
Opposition from abroad - opposition at home might be encouraged from abroad- henry feared of France and the Holy Roman Empire (Catholic Powers) coming together under the Pope to launch a grand Catholic crusade against England. (though Catherine did not agree to divorce she refused to encourage plots against her husband and even wrote to the Pope). However Henry still found Catherine a threat (nephwew) so made it clear she was Princess Dowager and Mary was illegimate. - Catherine refused so Henry stopped Catherine from seeing Mary for the last 5 years of her life- Henry feared for opposition and made a public example of enenmies
Opposition to Henrician Reformation - PILGRIMAGE O
Autumn of 1536 Henry faced greates and most popular opposition seen on English soil. Rising started in Louth and spread to the North (vast number of people and was very organised - mass movement leadership of Robert Aske.) Rebels took an oath to stick together during the Pilgramige and to be peaceful. Rebels issued a series of articles outlining complaints and demands (most Cromwellian regime) - ease in 3 weeks took control of north , no one wished to oppose them (York was taken over then they moved South) - rebels effortlessly won over a substantial part of UK.
Reasons For Pilgrimage:
- Defence of the Church - changes in religion and attacks on the Church (main reason) - total dissolution of monastries (rumour may not be the only target Henry had on the church) - Startes in Louth as people rose to defend local parish church- when commissioner arrived to carry out visitation of the local clergy - he was seized - rebels marched to nearby nunnery where there were royal comissioners were at work
- Monastries Restored - elsewehere similar revolts were happeniing - risings flared when monastries were being dissolved - monks and priests stired up protests- 16 of 55 suppressed monastries were restored during revolt- in their atricles religion had pride of place. Article 4 complained about activities of Cromwell, Article 2 wanted to see papal headship restored- articles claimed taxes were too high
How Serious A Threat Did The Pilgrimage Pose?
Pilgrimage was organised and rebels were strong but also Henry was not equipped to resist them- he had no standing army , and had to rely on loyalty of pears such as Norfolk for raising troops - was hard to find especially as King did not want to spend a lot of money. In the end government only raised 8,000 assorted solidiers to challenge 30,000 rebels and troops- Norfolk Reported that battle against rebels was not an option. Government also faced that the rebellion may be co-ordinated with a Papal invasion from other countries. Chapuys who was Imperial abassodor was extatic when he heard of the rising he exaggerated to Charles V that an invasion of England would easily overthrow the King, avenge Catherine and put Mary on the throne and bring back papal obedience
Why did the rebellion fail? - despite government weaknesses- though many gentry and peers were involved in the reising none of the titled nobility threw in their lot wholeheratedly with the rebels. Henry Percy (Earl of Northumberland)was most likley to make success of rising however he spent a lot of the time in London. Henry Clifford (Earl of Cumberland) was a potential leader but was under attack from the rebels, he was a landlord who legally increased rents which had to be paid by tenants- hated by the percies therefore there was no chance of NORTHERN unity - would be vital for long-time success. The rebels were also loyalists , all presumed that once aware of their concerns a caring monarch would put things right- rebels were also loyal and peaceful and only hope of success was if Henry was frightened or so concerned that he would sack counsellors , reinstate nobility as his chief advisors and turn clock back to 1529- However Henry was unrepetant and his instict was to teach them a lesson as he had no army he went along with subterfuge and appeared to go along with rebel demands by inviting leaders to london and granting parliament to meet in the north - when loyal rebels believed dispersed in triumph Henry was able to destroy the leaders with ease & then send in troops to execute as many rebels as possible - rebels betrayed by loyalty of King
Why did the Pilgrimage Fail?
Goverenment Propaganda against the Pilgrimage - King and servants put on some serious propaganda to strengthen governments hand- Hows it possible for rebels to take oath together , while honuring their king with their oath? - north of england bombarded with propaganda on sinfulness of rebellion- henry sent propaganda abroad which was used to dampen any thoughts of invasions
Destruction of rebels in 1537 - henry sent home rebels home with empty promises & parliament in the north- prepared to strike- given to him by Sir Francis Bigod- his abortive risings in January was used as an excuse to claim the rebels leaders had broken their word - Duke of Norfolk returned to the North and declared martial law - groups of rebels were hung and gentry leaders rounded up and taken to London - (178 in Aske and Darcy executed for treason). Henrys Control over the north was strengthened by the death of Earl Of Northumberland in July 1537. He had made henry his heir so all lands went to the king- Council brought in North staffed by loyal servants - feudal power of north was erdoed.
How important and far reaching were the religious
The Ten Articles 1536- request of Cranmer and some reforming bishops who thougth there should be a statement of religious orthodoxy in the post-papal Church. King intrested in this as he wanted agreement with the German league of Protestant Princes, whereby he could defy Charles V and pose as European champion of reform- however religious price demanded by the German princes were too high for the King. Articles refused to adopt a protestant or Lutheran line e.g. articles declared that in mass chirsts body and blood were actually present , seen as Catholic or Lutheran. Ten articles stated if charity was taken to mean good works , this was very Catholic. The Articles were only passed through Convocation so did not have the force of law
Bishops Book 1537- this was hoped to clarify some of the issues left by the ten articles- main problem with the book was that it lacked royal approval - when henry did have time to review the book he sent Cranmer 250 changes to the text- main thrust of these changes was to ensure that 'good works' (catholic) and not justr faith played a part in salavtion
Cromwells Injuctions (1536) (PROTESTANT)- 2 above had little impact on the way in which people worshipped. Cromwells imjuctions did more to dismantle traditional aspects of Catholic ceremonials. The 1536 set placed emphasis on reform via education- cromwell ordered clergy to teach young people ten commandements and articles of faith. Wealthy clergy were to support scholars , schools and universities and parents were urgeed to educate their children (nothing un-catholic) however injuction went on to say that the clergy were to publicise and to show their approval of the supremacy and ten articles. Other items in injuctions had more profound effect as there was a reduction in Holy Days (holidays). The other was a command that rectors should provide Bibles in English and Latin for people to read in church.
How important and far reaching were the religious
Cromwells Injuction 1538- in the second set images that were the object of the Pilgrimage were to be taken down. Candled before images were forbidden and sermons were to be preached against the veneration of images and relics (st.pauls cross in London was destroyed).- determined effort to introduce an English Bible in to every parish and church in the world
An English Bible - printing of bibles was delayed and when final bibled finally appeared reformers influence over the King was beginning to crumble. However the English Bible was introduced and marked a major development in the history of the Englidh Church. Frontpiece of Bible showed Supreme Head distributing the Word of God to the faithful , this enhanced his elf-esteem and his sence of imperial powersas second only to God- powerful propaganda to boost Supremacy.
Restrictions on access to the Bible- individuals who wished to posses their own bible had to have a lisence. Henry however thought the bible may creating divisons and so he limited Bible to the politically powerful. (common people not to read bible at all!)- this shows that henry in matters of faith and theology had not brought in heretical or lutheran ideas- no more protestant reforms until after his death in 1547
In what ways was the Henrician reformation reverse
Trial of John Lambert 1538- Lambert was a protestant - the trial indicated that Cromwells reforming ideas were not as popular with the King as they once were, it also was encourangement for those who hated the recent religious changes in beliefs and tradition. Suprisingly Cromwell instigated the trial as Henry had recently executed alleged papists for heresy , cromwell though he need to prosecute a protestant Heretic.(Cromwell wanted to show his loyalty). Lambert was accused of denying the real presence in the Eucharist (catholic). King attented trial dressed in white to show commitment against heresy. Cranmer in the trial was feeble and gave Lambert benefit of the doubt however the King was in no doubt of Lamberts doubt. King pronounced the verdict which was guilty- Lambert was burned alive 22 Nov 1538, this showed the King was firmly against any change in the crucial Catholic doctrine of Mass. In addition henry issued a proclomation insiting on the real presence and the observance of Church ceremonies and also clerical marriaged were declared unlawful.
Act of Six Articles 1539- more evidence England was in fact Catholic protestant and not Catholic- King brought in the acts though asked as questions King and Lords knew which anwsers were wanted - as a result the acts which were very Catholic were passed without serious opposition in parilament. Under new act denial of transubstantiation were made puinshable, also the denial of clerical celibacy (not marry) or Communion in one kind for laymen (at communion receive bread and wine) were all punishable by hanging or life imprisonment. Catholic doctrines were now being enforced by parlimentary statue , the highest form of law- not many were persecuted under this act -these Catholic beliefs remained in force until his death.
Opposition to the Act- protestants both home and abroad were outraged by the act but there was little they could do. Cranmer made some signs of opposition but quickly caved in , some bishops resigned . Protestants abroad were outraged but not suprised as they had never thought that Henry was one of them.
Why was Cromwell overthrow in 1540?
Reasons for his fall - the sudden fall and execution of Kings chief Protestant minister was a clear indication that the Reformation was being de-railed- unpopularity to henry marriage to Anne of Cleaves which Cromwell had promoted and arranged he also was in trouble when it was found out that Cromwell knew about heresy in Calais (ENGLAND OWNED) but had been unwiling to enforce the 6 articles. Cromwell was in more trouble when allie Robert Barnes a Lutheran , preached in favour of justification by faith alone to a recent sermon by Bishop Gardiner - foolish and indiscreet. The Duke of Norfolk wanted to exploit the Kings marital unhappiness with Anne of Cleves - he did this by dangling his niece Catherine Howard in front of the monarch - Henry was quickly captivated by her which allowed norfolk to influence the King. In the short term the Kings attachemnt to Catherine Howard allowed Norfolk and Suffolk to intrigue against Cromwell. Many others hated cromwell due to the dissolution of the Monastries and he had many enimes. Henry had a final trick before getting rid of Cromwell. In 1540 he made Cromwell Earl of Essex - some say this was to make his downfall more terrible as it was unexpected however it could also be said that it was a last minute agreement to arrest Cromwell on the grounds of heresey - 28th June he was executed - 2 days later 3 protestants arrested and burned- shows Henry church was to be Catholic.
The Kings Book 1543
Final statement on religious matters .
- the importance of bible was played down
- importance of Mass , transubstantiation and confession were re-emphasised
- images made a come-back
- importance of obedience and good works in acheiving salvation
- rejection of Lutheran doctrine & protestant
Book carried muh authority and power as it came from the Churchs Supreme Head and it was given parlimentary backing (unlike bishops book)
Motives - after cromwells fall those still close with the king continued to fight among themselves - those who remained inherited distrust and betrayal. Some of Kings servants were motivated by religiuos preferences however many were out for themselves- disputes were mainly over religion but were made worse by Henry two last wives, disagreements over foreign policy as Henry decided to go to war against france
In 1540s after death of cromwell faction fighting was not as deadly. Cranmer , Gardiner & Henrys latest wife Catherine Parr were all accused of crimes yet all survived , this was because the King was not so vindictive without Cromwell, he liked to balance factions to show his ultimate power. - also religious beliefs of the church had now been settled to the Kings liking and woukd not change his mind- no arguments now over who had influence over Henry
Charges against Cranmer- 1543 privy council persuaded the King to bring heresey charges against Archbishop Cranmer - without him surley reformers would fall apart- certain archbishop was finished conservatives moved in to arrest him - meanwhile unknown to them the King had summoned Cranmer and gave him a royal ring as a sign on affection - Cranmer showed conservatives the ring and realised Henry had outwitted them- raced to apologise to soverign lord