History B Unit 1 (Cold War)

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Agreed Points

  • Germany would be divided into four zones
  • Berlin would also be divided into four zones
  • free elections in Eastern European countries
  • USSR would join the fight against Japan
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  • Nazi party would be banned and its members tried as criminal


  • Britain and France denied Stalin a naval base in the meditteranian 
  • Stalin wanted more reperations to be paid by Germany
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Atom Bomb effects

  • Stalin thought that the USA used the bomb as a warning to the USSR
  • An Arms Race emerged between USA and USSR
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'Iron Curtain' in Eastern Europe

Soviet Expansion

  • Free elections were help in Eastern European countries like Stalin promised at Yalta but these were probably rigged.
  • Europe was now divided
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Truman Doctrine


  • Truman supplied them with arms, supplies and money for their civil war against communism


  • Gave military aid for defense against communists
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Marshall Plan

Marshall aid

Two Aims:

  • Stop spread of communism
  • help economies of europe to recover

Effects of aid

  • Only 16 european countries accepted the aid
  • Stalin banned all eastern European countries from accepting the aid

Soviet Response- Cominform

  • Response to Marshall Aid
  • Used to spread communist ideas
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Berlin Blockade/ Airlift


  • Stalin thought Britain and USA wanted Germany to recover
  • French unsure about whether to help Germany
  • USSR did not want to rebuild Germany
  • Britain, France, USA merged zones of Germany to become Trizonia
  • Allies introduced a new currency


  • Stalin closed all roads and rail connections from Berlin to West Germany
  • Allies decided to airlift supplies e.g. food, clothing, oil


  • Victory for the West 
  • Relations with the USSR hit rock bottom
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  • USA committed defense of West Europe
  • USA able to build air bases in Europe, boosting western Europe's  defense

Arms Race

  • In 1949, USSR successfully tested atomic bomb
  • In 1952, USA detonated hydrogen bomb
  • In 1953, USSR tested its own hydrogen bomb
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Korean War


  • June 1950- North pushes South back and controls all but South East of Korea
  • September 1950- South pushes North back up to the very north of the country
  • January 1951- North pushed South back just below the 38th Parallel 
  • July 1953- South pushes north just above 38th Parallel where they remained


  • Korea damaged
  • Strained relations between north and south
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  • Hungary hated their communist leader because of his brutality


  • Nagy becomes leader and wants free elections
  • USSR sent troops and tanks
  • Plea to the West is ignored
  • Nagy captured and is shot


  • Over 30,000 Hungarians killed, most civilians
  • 700 Soviet troops killed
  • New communist goverment set up
  • Other eastern European countries scared of USSR 
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U-2 Crisis

Name of Pilot: Gary Powers

After the shooting down, Khruschev wantet USA to:

  • Apologise for U-2 incident
  • Stop future spying flights
  • Punish those responsible


  • Not only America plane shot down but Americans lied for the world to see
  • Soviets had scored a propaganda victory
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Contrast of West and East Berlin


  • A high standard of living


  • Poor standard of living
  • 3 Million crossed from east to west Berlin, many were skilled workers
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Buliding of the Berlin Wall

  • At first the wall was little more than barbed wire but was soon replaced with a stone wall.
  • Movement between east and west Berlin was stopped


  • Flow of refugees reduced
  • Western Nations won a propaganda victory

Kennedy's Reaction

  • Visited and said that it was a clear struggle between the forces of freedom and communism. 
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Cuban missile crisis

Politics of Cuba

  • Castro was popular in Cuba but soon USA stopped giving aid to Cuba.This only mad Cuba more friendly with USSR because they accepted aid off of them.
  •  Kennedy gave orders for rebels to oppose Castro at the Bay of Pigs but it was a disaster.


20th October- Kennedy imposes a naval blockade

21st October- Kennedy addresses America warning them of the possible threat

23rd October- Khruschev sends letter to Kennedy informing him that Soviet ships would barge through the blockade

27th October- US spy play shot down

28th October- Khrushchev agress to remove missiles if USA removes theirs from Turkey.

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Cuba Crisis continued...


  • Leaders of USA and USSR realise nuclezr war is a possibility
  • Americans and Soviets set up a 'hot-line' between their countries
  • Kennedy becomes hero for defying communism
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Prague Spring

  • Censorship of the press ended
  • Other political parties other than the communist party allowed
  • Citizens allowed more freedom for travelling abroad

Reaction of the USSR

  • Warsaw Pact troops entered Czechoslovakia
  • President of Czeckoslovakia and Dubcek flown to Moscow for talks 
  •  Censorship re-introduced and many reforms stopped
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Soviet involvement in Afghanistan

  • USSR insisted that they were invited to restore order
  • Western Nations protested

Reasons for invasion

  • Soviets concerned about Muslim revolution in neighboring Iran which could have spread to Afghanistan.
  • Political situation in Afghanistan was very unstable
  • Afghanistan was close to the middle east oil reserves of Western Powers


  • SALT 2 not ratified
  • President Carter cut trade bretween USA and USSR
  • USSR lost many troops
  • Dent to the Soviets grip on the world


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Ronald Reagan's political policies

  • Thought Detente was a disaster 
  • Rejected the idea of Peaceful co- existence
  • Referred to the USSR as ' that evil empire'

'Star Wars'

  • Reagan intented to launch satallites with lasers to win the Cold War
  • USSR could not afford anything like satellites
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Effects of Afghanistan

  • USSR locked in an unwinnable war
  • economy was weak from thwe arms race with the USA
  • No constructive reform 
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End of Soviet Control in Eastern Europe

Poland- Free Elections

East Germany- East German leader hated and his troops refused to fire on demonstrators. Berlin wall was pulled down

Czechoslovakia- Huge anti- communist protests. free elections introduced

Romania- during a revolution communist leader and his wife were shot.

Bulgaria- communist leader resigned and free elections were held

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John F Kennedy Nikita Khrushchev's policies


  • Believed in Peaceful co-existence
  • De-Stalinisation


  • Brinkmanship- push enemy to brink of war and make them surrender
  • Iron fist
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