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  • Created on: 22-05-14 19:03

How Hitler Removed Opposition 1933/34

1. Calls new election MARCH 1933 - so can sit in Reichstag unopposed

2. 48 hour law - all election meetings must be notified 48 hours before. Allowed SA to disturb Communist meetings, not able to campaign for votes before election

3. Reichstag Fire - Feb 1933 Reichstag burnt down week before election blamed Communists and gained Nazi support

4. Election - only 44%, arrested the 81 who voted against him

4. Enabling Act - got Hindenburg to sign able to protect people and gov / imprison lots of Communists and SD / can't campaign and banned from Reichstag

5. March 1933 election

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How Hitler Became Dictator

1. Took over local governments and replaced heads with loyal Nazi's 

2. Replaced Anti-Nazi teachers and Professors

3. Set up Gestapo

4. 1000's sent to concentration camps (Jews, Gypsies, Disabled)

5. Trade Unions banned - German Labour Front set up reduce pay and took away right to strike

6. Political parties banned

7. Night of Long Knives - June 1934 more than 1 million SA, Rohm "planned" to overthrow, Hitler ordered SS to kill over 400 SA 

8. Hindenburg died - combined Chancellor and President to FUHRER

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Ways Hitler Controlled Germany

1. Nazi only party allowed

2. SS SA and Gestapo threatened people, concentration camps

3. Properganda make Ger look great - 1936 Berlin Olympics

4. Hitler Youth - boys learnt to be soldiers girl learnt to be mothers

5. Banned Trade Unions so couldn't strike and wages were lower, set up "Strength through Joy" 

6. Concordat w/ Pope to leave Church alone

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Effect on Germans

1. Nazi members happy - best houses, preferential treatment

2. Normal people - no unemployment, "Strength through Joy", there was law and order, frequent ceremonies and rallies, propergande gave hope

BUT lower wages, workers could be shot, loss of free speech, culture had to be Nazi

3. Women - Anti-feminist, wed couples given 1000 and allowed to keep 250 for every child they had, more than 8 children got gold medal, job discrimination

4. Youth - Joined Hitler Youth bred to be soldiers and mothers / Edelweiss Pirates rejected ideas and took on American culture when attacked SS in Colonge publically hanged, some girls didn't like the idea of Children Church and Cooking

5. Opponents - banned trade unions, communists in concentration camps or killed, each set of flats had "staircase ruler" to take away grumblers of Nazi regime 

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Effect on Germans - Untermensch

Untermensch - subhuman 

Groups which were persecuted and killed included:

  • Jews, such as Anne Frank, whom the Germans systematically persecuted, were forced into walled ghettos put into concentration camps, and used for medical experiments.   

  • Gypsies were treated almost as badly as the Jews - 85% of Germany's gypsies were killed.

  • Black people were sterilized and killed.

  • 5000 mentally disabled babies were killed 1939-45.   

  • 72,000 mentally ill patients were killed 1939-41.

  • Physically disabled people and families with hereditary illness were sometimes sterilized.   300,000 men and women were sterilized 1934-45.

  • Some deaf people were sterilised and put to death.

  • Beggars, homosexuals, prostitutes, alcoholics, pacifists, hooligans and criminals were also regarded as anti-social, and they were put in concentration camps.

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Segregation Laws

  • Jim Crow Laws - blacks second class
  • Public facilities separated
  • 5% of blacks in Mississippi registered - had to pass literacy test blacks couldn't do
  • Not protected by law - judges discriminated against
  • Earnt half wages of white people
  • Violence from whites, lynchings i.e from Klu Klux Klan
  • Migrated to northern states as could vote and have education
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Attitudes in Southern states

Klu Klux Klan

  • Bombed neighbourhoods to drive blacks away
  • Co-operated w/ Mayors and Judges to resist change
  • Physical violence and murder used to threaten black civil activists
  • 1964 - 3 civil rights workers killed by Klan
  • Some afraid to stand up for blacks - were neutral
  • Raised to be racist
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Montgomery Bus Boycott 1955/56

  • Refused to give seat on bus to white person
  • NAACP took as a test case
  • Boycott meant to last 1 day last 381 days
  • 90% blacks took part
  • Cut bus revenues mainly blacks which rode
  • Supreme court ordered all buses in Montgomery to be desegregated 
  • Organised by Martin Luther King 
  • Showed non-violence worked
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Brown vs Topeka Board of Education 1954

  1.  
    • Southern schools segragated by law had to be deemed "all equal"
    • Didn't have same equipment and facilities etc
    • Brown wanted daughter to be sent to nearer white school
    • NAACP argued at a disadvantage thus for life
    • 1954 Supreme court ruled not equal from case
    • Schools had to be desegregated and would be eased in
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Little Rock Nine 1957

  • Topeka Board of Education ruled all schools desegregated
  • People in Southern states hostile about this
  • 1957, blacks sued for right to go to white school
  • Governor of Arkansas called National guard to prevent 9 from entering
  • President Eisenhower ordered National Guard back and sent 101 Airborne to protect
  • One student graduated
  • Central High not fully intergrated till 1960
  • Others schools in Little Rock 1972
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Sit-in's 1960

1960 

  • Civil rights movement caused student sit-in's in Woolworths store 
  • North Carolina
  • Four students sat and refused to leave at segregated lunch corner
  • Copied in other stores down the country
  • Gained national attention
  • Also targeted parks, beaches, libraries, theatres, cinemas
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Freedom Rides 1961

1961

  • Wanted to see if Bus Boycott solved anything
  • Supreme court had ended segregation on buses
  • CR activists travelled on inter state buses across country
  • White and blacks sat together
  • Met with violent mobs
  • Bus fire bombed in southern states
  • Freedom riders arrested for "breaching peace"
  • More than 300 jailedin Mississippi
  • President Kennedy intervened and ordered a new desegregation order
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Freedom Marches 1963

1963 

  • Aimed to end segregation in the town centre
  • Authorities claimed illegal protest and planned mass arrest
  • Campaign faltered
  • 1000 students joined in to save it
  • Turned over the Childrens Crusade
  • Over 600 arrested
  • Fire hoses and dogs set on children 
  • On TV
  • Outraged public
  • President Kennedy intervened w/ Civil Rights Bill 
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Washington March 1963

1963

  • Planned by all major civil rights organisations
  • Called to end discrimination at work, voting rights and right to education
  • 200,000/300,000 people took part
  • "I have a dream"
  • March leaders met President Kennedy commited to pass a Civil Rights Bill
  • Lacked enough support in Congress
  • After assassination new President secured it's passage
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Selma to Montgomery 1965

1965

  • Little success with votes 
  • 3% registered
  • MLK lead marches into town
  • Met w/ troopers and violence
  • Shown on TV
  • Help President Johnson pass Voting Rights Act 1965
  • Ended voting discrimination
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BLACK POWER

  • Nationalist
  • Wanted separation not intergration
  • Anti-american
  • Nation of Islam called for this
  • Black power - wider aims of racial dignityand freedom of white oppression
  • Urban based
  • After WW2 many lived in ghettos
  • Concentration neighbourhoods w/ high crime
  • Race riots 1965-7
  • Against this background "BLACK POWER" emerged
  • Leader 1966 Stokely Carmicheal
  • Afro-Americans 
  • Blacks arming against the KKK
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Malcolm X

  • Wanted improvement of black lives
  • Joined NOI
  • Wanted seperate black American state
  • Accused of encouraging violence and hatred
  • Raised awareness of hardship of ghettos
  • 32% ghetto pupils finished high school
  • High unemployment
  • Violence 
  • Poverty
  • King offered ghetto-ers nothing
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Black Panther Party

  • Followed ideas of Malcolm X by "any means necessary"
  • sought to confront police brutality
  • No plant to do so
  • Never more than 5000 members
  • Dissapeared by 1970
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Mexico Olympics 1968

1968

  • Smith and Carlos won bronze and gold
  • Gave gloved Black Power salute
  • Thrown out of games
  • Were tired of whites
  • Broadcasted everywhere
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MLK 1955/63

  • ddd
  • 1955 Leader of Buss Boycott
  • Stressed about non-violent approach
  • House firebombed during Boycott
  • Prefered mass action and direct protests
  • NAACP used courts
  • 1960 moved to Georgia
  • SCLC used non-violence in the south (his new organisation)
  • Aim = attract national attention to racial inequality
  • SCLC lacked organisation
  • Marches worked
  • Believed blacks lacked political power for change
  • Organised campaigns and demonstrations for lack of black voters
  • Frequent arrests gained publicity
  • Civil rights boosted by sit-ins
  • Led a few of these
  • Led Childrens Crusade
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