History america 1930s hoover vs roosevelt

revision notes on bonus marcehs, how governmnet reacted and roosevelt

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The bonus marchers

  • In may 1932 20000 ex soldiers from the first World wAr went to Washington to ask for immediate payment of their bonus
  • This was a payment of $500 that had promised by an Act of 1924 and which was due in 1945
  • The Bonus Marchers, as they became known,camped on the lawn outside the White House
  • hoover refused to meet and in August ordered the US Army to clear the Bonus marchers away. THe army sent in tank, cavalry and infantry.
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How did the government react from 1929-1933

Herbet Hooner was elected President just beofre the Wall Street Crash. He claimed that the boom would go on forecer and that poverty would be removed. These words rebounded on him

  • He believed that governmnet should not interfere in buisness and that buisness would right itself sooner or later. THis was known as the Lasee faire attitude, He therefore did nothing at first.
  • He believed that citites and local authorities should help their own unemployed. It was not he government responsibility
  • In 1930 he passed the Hawley-Smoot Tariff, which imposed higher taxes on imports. hoover believed that this would force Americans to buy american goods, but the plan back fired. It simply made American exports even more difficult.
  • In 1930 he reduced taxes, an attempt to give more money for people to spend.
  • As a result of doing little and doing it too late. Hoover was deeply unpopular, this was one reason why roosevelt won such a landslide.
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Why was Roosevelt elected president in 1932?

  • Herbert Hoover became deeply unpopular, he failed to tackle the effects to the Depression, and gave the impression that he did not care.
  • Roosevelt had shown he had been able to tackle tradegy in his personal life. he had refused to give in to polio.
  • As a Govenor of new York he had introduced a number of measures aimed at relieveing the effects of the depression. 
  • But the most important factor in Roosevelts favour was that he gave the impression that he cared. He was able to persuade voters that something would at last be done.
  • Roosevelt made few promises except to offer a New Deal for the American poeple and to declare war on poverty.
  • In 1932 roosevelt won a landslide victory in the election but did not come president until March 1933
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