Why did the Cold War begin?
The Grand Alliance 1941
- America and the USSR together to defeat the Nazis.
- Marriage of convenience between communists and capitalists.
- After Hitler had been defeated, Alliance became uneasy.
Differences in what they want!
Capitalists want: Individual rights & freedom. Free trade and democratic elections.
Communists want: The rights of the working class, equality, government planned and controlled by the communist party.
The Tehran Conference
The Tehran Conference (1943)
- Designed to make plans for the reconstruction of Europe following the second world war.
- Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin all agreed there should be a USSR "sphere of influence" in eastern Europe. (an area where communism is respected)
- This would make sure the USSR was not opposed by neighbouring countries.
- Germany future not agreed on:
- Stalin thought they should be punished.
- Churchill and Roosevelt thought they should be rebuilt.
- Argued that "a peaceful europe needs a prosperous Germany"
The Yalta Conference
The Yalta Conference (1945)
- Stalin agreed that Russian troops would help America defeat Japan once Hitler had been defeated.
- Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to establish a communist government in Poland.
- The 'Declaration on Liberated Europe' committed the USSR, America and Britain to work for democracy in Europe.
- The Allies agreed to establish the United Nations, an organisation committed to maintaining peace.
- Reinstated "Sphere of influence"
The Potsdam Conference
The Potsdam Conference (1945)
Final meeting of the three leaders of the Grand Alliance.
They agreed to;-
- Ban the Nazi Party and prosecute existing Nazis as war criminals.
- Reduce the size of Germany by 1/4
- Divide Germany into four allocated to:
France, Britain, America and the USSR.
- Truman thought because he had the atomic bomb, He had power.
The Long Telegram
The Long Telegram (1946)
Secret report from Kennan to Truman. Worrying news!:
- Stalin had given a speech calling for the destruction of capitalism.
- There could be no peace with the USSR while it was opposed to capitalism.
- The USSR was building up its Military power!
Novikiovs Telegram (1946)
Soviet Ambassador of America, Novikov telegram to Stalin.
- America desired to dominate the world.
- America don't wanna cooperate with USSR.
- America preparing for war with them.
The Truman Doctrine 1
Following the Long Telegram Truman wanted to test the strength of the USSR's army. > Found out they were in no position for war!
But, he believed they had a second strategy. At this point, communism was very appealing.
The Truman Doctrine stated that:
- The world had a choice.
- America had responsibility to fight for liberty wherever it was threatened.
- America would send troops and economic resources to help governments that were threatened by communists
- Communism should NOT be allowed to grow.
It was important because; it suggested that America had responsibility for the world, instead of the United Nations.
It also clearly split Capitalism and Communism.
It was the unofficial end of the Grand Alliance
It set a realistic goal: "Containment"
The Marshall Plan
The Marshall Plan (1947)
The plan committed $13 Billion of American money to rebuild shattered economies of Europe.
By encouraging prosperity, The Marshall Plan would weaken the attraction of communism.
So that they didn't need communism they had to be rich
- To qualify for American money, European countries had to trade freely with America.
Reactions to The Plan
Reactions to The Marshall Plan..
- Leaders met at Paris Conference (1948) to discuss the American offer.
- Many countries keen, however, USSR thought Americans were trying to split Europe in two.
& The start of a military alliance against the Soviet Union.
- 16 countries including Britain and France agreed to take part.
A satellite state is a country that is officially independant, but in reality is controlled by another country.
Eg. Czechoslovakia, Hungary & Poland ruled by USSR.
Why did Stalin set them up?
To prevent the Marshall Plan from working and European countries becoming American allies, he extended His influence to make more satellite states.
Stalin used Cominform (1947) to extend His control.
It was an organisation that represented communist parties and brought them under the direction of the USSR.
The first Cominform Conference rejected the Marshall Plan.
Communists were encouraged to rise up against it.
> In France, 2 million communist workers went on strike (Winter 1947), demanding the French government reject the Marshall Plan.
Cominform was also used to ensure the loyalty of Eastern European Governments.
> They did this by investigating governments and employees, if these people were unfaithful to Stalin they would be jailed.
Comecon (1949) The Council for mutual economic assistance.
This was Stalins answer to the Marshall Plan.
In the first year they got many countries on their side, such as the USSR, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and Romania.
It encouraged the economic development of Eastern Europe.
It attempted to prevent trade with Western Europe and America.
- It would minimise American influence politically.
- It ensured benefits of economic recovery in eastern europe remained within the Soviet 'sphere of influence'
- It meant east europe didn't have access to prosperity in west europe.
Post 2nd World War
Russia and America were unable to agree about Germanys future.
- Which sphere of influence? American or Soviet?
- Capitalist or Communist government?
- Should they get Marshall Aid?
- Should troops from America and USSR remain in Germany?
Name given to British and American zones, working as one.
+ France = Trizonia.
The Berlin Blockade & Airlift
The Berlin Blockade (1948)
Stalin set up a military blockade around West Berlin:
this was to prevent the establishment of a seperate state in Western Germany.
His plan was to cut western Germany off from Berlin.
Then the new government, based in the capital, couldn't control the west.
The Berlin Airlift (1948)
Was President Trumans response to this.
He basically just got all his allied planes to carry the stuff accross the blockade, this stopped it from working.
The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (1949)
Alliance between America and many of the countries in Western Europe.
Everyone defends eachother under attack.
Significant development in the cold war.
The west against communism.
The Warsaw Pact (1955)
The USSR's response to this.
A military alliance between Eastern Europe and countries that mirrored that of NATO.