The Wall Street Crash
1929; The Wall Street Crash
- The American economy collapsed.
- First Sign- The wall street stock market collapsed in New York.
- Banks stopped giving out loans & existing loans not being paid back by the American people.
- Millions of people cut off, car sales went down by millions.
- By 1933 production of manufactured goods was only 20% of what it was before 1929.
- "when America sneezes, the world catches a cold"
- > The Great Depression
- Germany make loans to America to help.
The Manchurian Crisis
The Manchurian Crisis 1929
Japan suffered terribly in the Great Depression, they depended on exporting.
They suffered from food shortages, and job losses.
Its economy suffered a lot. Millions were unemployed.
Japan had a large army so believed they could use it to gain goods by military conquest.
Japan held the right to build a railway through the chinese provence of Manchuria, but Japan did not approve of this Military conquest.
The Mudken Incident
On September 18th 1931, part of the railway was destroyed.
The Japanese claimed it had been set off by the Chinese and used it as an excuse to invade Manchuria, to 'protect' it.
They Renamed the territory 'Manchukuo' and put Chinese Emporor, Pu Yi, in control.
The Leagues Reaction
China made an appeal to the League of Nations:-
- The League set up a commission of inquiry under Lord Lytton.
- The League asked Japan to withdraw its troops from Manchuria.
Japan ignored this request.
- The Lytton Commission (September 1932) Reported that Japan had acted unlawfully and should return Manchuria to China.
- Japan ignored this and left the League.
- In 1933 Japan invaded the Chinese province of Jehol. Then in 1937 began a full-scale invasion of China.
The Italian Invasion of Abyssinia
- The Italian Leader, Mussolini, wanted to build an Italian Empire in Africa.
- Abyssinia was one of the few independant countries left in Africa, so was an obvious target.
- When 30 Italian soilders were killed in a border clash with Abyssinian troops in December 1934, Mussolini had an excuse to invade.
- Britain and France were scared of Mussolini (possible ally for Hitler)
- In April they signed the Stresa Front - they would unite against Germany.
- A ballot (vote) was held by the League of Nations. It showed that most British people wanted to use military force to protect Abyssinia.
- NO DIFFERENCE. October 1935, Italians invaded Abyssinia.
The Italian Invasion of Abyssinia 2
Haile Selassie - The Abyssinian Emperor
- Appealed the the League for help.
- The League imposed economic sanctions:
- No rubber, iron or weapons were to be sold to Italy.
- 'oil issue' was discussed.
The Hoare Laval Pact
- Britain and France devised a plan to give Mussolini 2/3 of Abyssinia if He agreed to stop fighting.
- These details were leaked in 1935 and there was an uproar.
- Both participants were forced to resign.
- Mussolini continued his attack and on May 2nd captured The Abyssinian capital, Addis Ababa.
- Italy and Germany signed an agreement called the "Rome-Berlin Axis" where they agreed to work together more closely.
Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles!
- Accept full blame for starting WW1
- Pay reparations for damages done
- Large amount of territory taken off them
- Major cut backs in armed forces
- No troops were allowed in the Rhineland
Hitler - A growing problem!?
Even before he became Chancellor in January 1933, he had set out of the future of Germany in his autobiography "Mein Kampf"
- The Treaty of Versailles should be torn up. - symbol of humiliation.
- Germany must expand. - Grossdeutschland.
- Communism must be destroyed. Take over Soviet Union.
He did this through:
- Rearmament. At the world disarmament conference Hitler said he would disarm if everyone else did. They didn't. Introduced Conscription.
- The Saar rejoining Germany. Vote was held- Hitler made people vote for him. Important coal mine was returned.
- The remilitarisation of the Rhineland.
Germany makes Allies.
Germany Makes Allies:-
- In 1936, Germany signed the Rome-Berline axis with Italy.
- Also in 1936, Germany and Japan signed the Anti-Comintern Pact, 'Against the Communist International' They said they would work together to Oppose Communism. Italy also joined in 1937.
- In 1939, Germany and Italy turned the Rome-Berlin axis into a formal military alliance called the "Pact Of Friendship and Alliance" A.K.A - "The Pact Of Steel"
- In 1940, Japan joined the "Pact of Steel" and the Powers referred to themselves as the Axis Powers.
- During the second world war, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria also became axis powers.
1936; Britain and France failed to stop Hitler from marching into the Rhineland.
This was allowing them to break the Treaty of Versailles.
Because of this, Hitler also built up his armed forces, France and Britain did nothing.
1934; Austrian Nazis had tried to seize power in Austria. Hitler was keen to help.
However, Italian Leader, Mussolini, also wanted influence in Austria. Mussolini sent 100,000 troops to the Austrian border incase Hitler tried it.
1938; Hitler had backed down before, but now his forces were much stronger. Hitler knew the Italians wouldn't stop him.
The Austrian Chancellor, Schuschnigg, appointed leading Nazis to positions in government, hoping it would prevent Hitler from interfering in Austrian policy.
1938; It was discovered the Nazis were planning to overthrow the government.
- Schuschnigg holds referendum asking Austrians if they want to join Germany.
- Referendum held on April 10th.
- Showed 99.75% of Austrians want to join with Germany.
- Hitler demands Schuschnigg be replaced with Seyss-Inquart, if not Germany would invade. So on March 11th this happened.
The Sudeten Crisis
The Sudeten Crisis 1938
After the take over of Austria, Hitlers next target was Czechoslovakia. (Symbol of Germanys humiliation)
- Contained 3million German Speakers on area called Sudetenland (German Border)
- Czechoslovakia seen as a threat, militarily & econimically.
Hitler ordered leaders of Czech Nazi Party members to make demands for roles in Czech Government and told Sudeten Germans He would support them if they caused problems for Benes
12 September 1938; RIIIIOOOTTT!
Chamberlin (British Priminister) says He will transfer those parts of the Sudetenland where people are German to Hitler, but Hitler said it was not enough and He had to get them himself.
The Munich Conference
Chamberlin was ****** at Hitlers rejection of His offer, and started preparing for war, digging trenches, making shelters & weapons.
Mussolini proposed a meeting between Britain, France, Germany and Italy to resolve the crisis, Chamberlin liked this idea.
The four powers met in Munich on September 29th,
they agreed that the Sudetenland should become part of Germany.
German troops entered the Sudetenland on October 1st 1938.
Hungary and Poland also took parts of Czechoslovakia.
Czechoslovakia and the Soviet Union were NOT invited to the conference, Benes, the Czech leader, resigned in disgust.
On September 30th 1938, Chamberlin and Hitler (Britain and Germany) signed the Anglo-German Declaration.
This said they would settle all the disputes between them by negotiation; they would never go to war again.
Chamberlin: "I believe it is peace for our time"
The road to war
Hitler breaks the Munich agreement.
March 15th 1939; Hitler ordered his troops to invade 2 parts of Czechoslovakia, protected by the Munich Agreement.
Appeasement was now dead! and Chamberlain brought in conscription, preparing for war.
March 20th; Hitler demanded to have Memel back! Fearing German invasion, Lithuania did so.
March 31st; Britain and France promised to give Poland independance if threatened. They approached the Soviet Union to make a pact against Hitler, but they were not trusted after the Munich Conference.
The Nazi-Soviet Pact
The Nazi-Soviet Pact - 23 August 1939
- Hitler and Stalin.
- Agreed not to fight eachother.
- Agreed secretly to divide Poland between them.
- Stalin wanted to stop attack of his country.
- Hitler hated communism, but if he invaded Poland He wouldn't have to fight the Soviet Union.
- Protected: doesn't have to face 'war on two fronts'
- Chamberlain reacted by signing 'Anglo-Polish Mutual Assistance Pact' - Support to Poland.
- SEPTEMBER 1ST; Germany invaded Poland.
Britain and France demanded He withdraw his forces, he didn't do so.
- SEPTEMBER 3RD; Britain and France declared war on Germany.
- SEPTEMBER 17TH; The Soviet Union invaded Poland.
Appeasement: Right or Wrong?
- Prevents war.
- Treaty of Versailles, not reasonable.
- Stalin is Communist, people scared He will spread this to other countries, so it makes sense to stay on Hitlers anti-communist good side.
- Britains not ready for war.
- Its based on trust; Hitler can't be trusted.
- Hitler exploited each concession.
- Moral; are Hitlers actions justifiable?
- Too one sided.