Entente Cordiale > Triple Entente
1904; Entente Cordiale
- France and Britain sign 'friendly understanding'
- They said they wouldn't quarrel over colonies
- Brought them closer together
1907; Triple Entente
- Russia joined in and it changed names
Europes Divided: Great Powers in two groups.
Germany, Austria Hungary, Italy- formal alliance- help eachother out in war. They're all feeling defensive and against eachother.
- Important British posession
- Suez Canal was a shortvut from the Mediterranean to the Red Sea
- Britain don't have to sail around Africa
- Britain and France both had huge overseas empires
- Kaiser Wilhelm wanted 'a place in the sun'
- He wants to take their land; Britain and France get closer
Morocco & Agadir- 1905
1905; Morocco Crisis
- Kaiser Wilhem tries to test how strong the Entente Cordiale is
- France wanted to take Morocco, Wilhelm makes speech about supporting their independance, trying to steal them
- Conference at Algeciras in Spain saying France should have them
- Britain and France brought together
1911; Agadir Crisis
- Rebellion against Moroccan ruler- the sultan
- France sent in troops and took over (used as excuse)
- Wilhelm gets mad that He now can't trade with Morocco
- Sends the panther (gun boat) - David George makes speech saying they will attack Germany if they continue to bully France.
The Arms Race
The Arms Race!
BETWEEN BRITAIN AND GERMANY
1898; Kaiser Wilhelm announced 'Germany will be building 41 battleships and 61 cruisers'
This caused alarm in Britain- they felt threatened.
1906; Britain launched their new battleship, 'HMS Dreadnought'
Wasn't until 1908 that Germany launched their first one.
Because Germany now have them, Britain want more.
"We want eight and we won't wait"
Conscription- compulsary military service
All ways of actually preventing war! less likely to attack- scared!
Great Power Rivalry
WW1 BROKE OUT IN 1914
- Germany taking over as more powerful than Britain- trade of iron, steel, cars & colonies.
- The Ottomans: South East Europe (The Balkans) part of the Ottoman Empire, Muslim Leaders. Military Power was in decline. Greece & Bulgaria win independance.
- Great Powers feel need to get involved. They want to keep their trade and Russia wants to keep their Southern port.
- Bulgarians rose up against the Ottomans in 1876, Russia sent troops to fight on the side of the Rebels to gain support.
- Great Power relationships are getting worse.
- The Ottomans were trying to keep their Empire in Europe.
- The Slav people were trying to set up independant countries.
- Austria Hungary was trying to stop these slav countries from being set up.
- Russia was trying to encourage the Slavs to ensure they had secure access to their Mediterranean port.
- Britain and France wanted to keep Russia out of the Med. to protect trade.
The Balkans 1900-13
The Bosnian Crisis 1908
- Austria didn't want more independant countries in the Balkans, or the expansion of Russian influence. They supported the continuation of Ottoman control there- Problems with this.
- Conference in 1878; Agreed AH should administer Bosnia-Herzegovina.
- 1908; Uprising in Ottoman Empire!
- Young Turks overthrew the Sultan and put his brother, Mohammad V on the throne.
- AH annex Bosnia- officially part of Habsburg EmpireAH Pays Turks compensation.
- Black Hand Gang made to defeat AH
The Balkan Wars: 1912-13
The Ottoman Empire continued to break up:
- Young Turks fell from power in 1911
- Balkan states saw this as an opportunity to attack the Ottomans.
- Serbia, Greece, Bulgaria and Montenegro = Balkan League. DECLARED WAR IN 1912.
- AH frared nationalism would come to power again.
- They got the Great Powers to hold a conference drawing up a peace treaty so no more lives can be lost.
- Within a month, the fighting starts again.
- In first war, Balkan countries united against Ottomans, not this time.
- Everyone starts attacking their allies and taking back land.
- Archduke Franz Ferdinand - Heir to the throne of Austria.
- 1890; married Countess Sophie Chotek - not royal - baddd!
- June 28th 1914: they go in open top car to attend military review!
- GAVRILO PRINCIP KILLS 'EM after they make a wrong turn returning.
- 5 members of the black hand gang were arrested but 1 escaped of the 6.
- Cabrinovic and Princip were both under 20, 20 year sentence- both died of tuberculosis.
- Habsburg plans to take action on Serbia.
- Germany say they will stand by their ally (Austria Hungary) if they choose to support Serbia, even if it means war with Russia.
On July 23rd, The Habsburg Government sent an ultimatum to Serbia.
It Said, The Royal Serbian Government must agree:
- stop publications showing hate to AH/stop propaganda against them.
- remove from the military anyone guilty of propaganda against AH.
- carry out a judicial inquiry against everyone involved in Sarajevo.
- to prevent Serbian authorities in the smuggling of weapons and explosives accross the frontier into Austria Hungary.
The Road To War
As Tension Increased:
- The British forgein secretary, Sir Edward Grey, tried to organise a conference between the Great Powers.
- Germany and Austria Hungary rejected this suggestion.
- After AH recieved Serbias response to their ultimatum, they declared war on July 28th.
- Germany had promised to support Austria so told Russia it must not help Serbia. They didn't do this, so on Aug 1st Germany declared on Russia.
- They used "The Schlieffen Plan".
- Because of this, when France mobilised its forces for war on Aug 2nd, Germany invaded France. They attacked through Belgium.
- Because they supported Belgium Independance they declared war on Germany on Aug 4th.
- EUROPES AT WAR.