How Hitler became chancellor
Impact of the wall street crash and the depression.
- Recovery of German economy was fragile. Depended heavily on American Loans.
- 1929 Wall street crash
- Banks forced to recall loans
- German companies can't pay them.
- German businesses began to close
- 6million unemployed more people felt let down by the Weimar Government turned to extremist parties.
Growth in support for Nazi and other extremist parties
- 1929 -33 Depression got worse,rapid growth in extremist political parties.
- Communist appealed poor working class.
- Held rallies/meetings/marches
- Communist Red Fighting League broke up meetings held by apponents.
- Nazies tried appeal working man and business man alike who had lost money in economic collapse.
How Hitler became chancellor
Weimar Government&failure of democracy.
- Difficult start of war,gained respect late 1920's,now it struggled with the depression.
- (Coalition goverments,normal in Weimar Germany,result of Proportional representation)
- Von hindenburg,president,highly respected, tried to create governments to solve the country's economic problem,Resulted in a series of weak governments did not command loyalty.
- Brüning was chancellor 1930-32 elections.
- Dealt with crisis raising taxes/cutting salaries gov employees/cutting level of unemployment benefit.
- Became very unpopular,Many germans believed their Democratic constitution was failing them.
How Hitler became chancellor
Elections July 1932 Very violent.
- Nazi and communist fought eachother street battle nearly 100 dead.
- Nazis became largest party in Reichstag.
- Hitler demads to be Chancellor.
- Hindenburg suspicious of hitler and refused.
- Instead appointed Franz von Papen conservative politician no party to be Chancellor.
- Achieve his aims Von Papen must increase his support,called another election Novemeber 1932.
- Nazi lost seats still largest party.
- Did not gain extra support.
Hitler Become Chancellor
- Von Papen simply could not pass any of the measures he wanted.
- Hindenburg and Von papen make Hitler Chancellor.
- Believed they'd be able to control him once in power.
- Jan 30 1933 Hitler Chancellor Von papen Vice-Chancellor.
How Hitler became chancellor
Nazi Gaining support
- 1yr after WSC socialist&communist benefited most economic crisis.(Reichstag election 1930)
- However 1932 Nazi message reached large audience.
- Nazi being the largest party in the Reichstag after July elections.
- 1932 Presidential election.Hitler (13million) V Hindenburg(19million) Usedoppertunity get Nazi message across 'Blaming countries problems on the enemies of germany(jews/communists/foreign capitalists) promising to build stronger country.
The Reichstag Fire
- Night 27 Feb 1933
- Reichstag burned to the ground.
- Communist Marinus Van der Lubbe arrested for the crime.
- Hitler and nazis exploited the fire for their own purposes.
- Nazi quick to blame Communists.
- Hiter persauded Hindenburg to pass an emergency Law restricting personal liberty.
- Reichstag fire particulary important moment Nazis to rise to power
Was the fire staged by the Nazis?.
- Van der Lubbe acted alone and on behalf of the communists.
- Nazi SA caused the fire hoping to blame the communists and win more support for Hitler in the gernal election.
Election March 1933 & Enabling Act
Election of March 1933
- Nazi 288 seats won
- Largest political party in Reichstag,Hitler dissapointed Nazi did not have an overall majority
- Only had 44% of the votes needed to pass laws legally.
- However he gained support Nationalists wanted to see Germany become a great country again.
- Support from Centre Party promisng to protect Catholic Church.
- Presidents emergency Law communists were unable to take their seats in the Reichstag.
- Be totally sure of a high Nazi majority,when Reichstag members assembled heavily armed Sa men made their presence known.
Enabling Act 1933
Enabling Act 1933
- Hitler did not have enough support to have complete control over Germany.
- An enabling act would give him the right to pass laws for the next 4 years without having to obtain the support of members in the Reichstag.
- To pass an enabling act Hitler needed to obtain votes of two thirds of the Reichstag but he had support of only just over half.
- Hitler ordered SA to continue to intimidate the oposition.
- 81 communist members of the Reichstag were expelled.
- atmosphere of heavy violence enabling act passed 441 votes to 94.
- Hitler was given power to rule for four years without consulting the Reichstag
The Elimination of political opposition.
- July 1933 Using powers of the enabling act he outlawed all other parties and Germany became a one-party state.
- Democratic Weimar Republic had been destroyed Germany had become a Dictatorship.
- Hitler turned on trade unions.
- May 2 Nazi broke into trade union offices all over the country and arrested thousands of trade union officials.
- Unions were banned all workers became part of German Labour Front.
Night of Long Knives
Night Of Long Knives
- Hitlers priority was to get rid of possible rivals.
- Ernst Rohm,Leader SA played a major role helping hitler achieve power.
- However German army saw SA as a rival-army wouldnt support Hitlerunless the SA was disbanded.
- Some members of SA looked to Hitler follow a socialist programme of reform,Hitler opposed since he knew be would lose support of wealthy industrialists.
- Hitler made a deal with generals of the German Army.Promised to support him as commander in chief of the armed forces if SA was disbanded,he started a programme of rearmament.
- 30 June 1934 SS (set up 1925 as an elite section of the SA) assasination squads murdered Hitlers potental SA rivals,including Rhom. Estimated that up to 400 people were killed.
Death of Hindenburg;Hitler becomes Fruhrer
- Over one month later President Hindenburg dies.
- Hitler thereafter combines posts of Chancellor and President and also became Commander in Chief of the armed forces.
- Soldiers swore personal allegiance to Hilter who officially became known as der Fuhrer. One Party Law and Order.
- Summer 1933 Germany had become a one party state.All other political parties had been banned.
- Anyone who openly crticised Hitler was imprisioned or worse.
- Hitler was all powerful,making all decisions in theory.However in private Hitler was very lazy and worked as little as possible. The SS and Gestapo
- The police state that hilter wanted was enforced ruthlessly by the SS (Hitlers bodyguards) and the Gestapo.
- Used terror tactics to intimidate,arrest or even kill any possible apponents.
- Enemies of the Nazi such as liberals,socialists,communists were often arrested and sent to concentration camps without trial.
Concentration camps/propaganda and censorship.
Concentration Camp The gestapo could hold anyone arrested in 'protective custody' in a concentration camp,run by the SS guardsd under the orders of the SS leader Heinrich Himmler.They mostly contained political prisioners (the association with jews and concentration camps came later from 1939 onwards,during WW2) Propaganda and Cencorship
- Aim of propaganda provide the German people with a nazi view of events.Target certain groups inside and outside Germany eg Jews,Communists,Socialists,liberals.
- The minister of Propaganda Goebbels used his power to control all information that reached the german people.
- Newspapers censored by the Government only stories favourable by the Nazi's.
- Radios controlled by the government,cheap radios manufactured so most germans could afford one.Favourable to the Nazi's
- Nazi's took over the German film industry.Cartoons were used to show jews as weak and devious.
- Goebbels organised mass rallies,most spectacular held in August Nuremburg.Rallies,hundreds of thousands of Nazi supporters.
- Nazis used sporting events to spread their propaganda 1936 Berlin olympic games used by Nazis to suggest the superiority of the Aryan Race.
Education and Youth movements and Church
- Education and Youth movements.
- School text books rewritten in support of Nazi ideas and History.
- Children tought Aryan race suoerior to others.
- Parents were encouraged to allow their children to join youth groups organised by the Nazis,where they were indoctrinated the Nazi ideas and beliefs.
- Control of Churches
- Catholic church signed an agreement with Hitler. Both sides agreed not to interfere with eachother.Nazis took over the protestant churches in germany under what was called the Reich Church. Many protestants accepted this because they were Nazi supporters eventhough many christians elements of worship weren't allowed.
- Hitler promised to remove unemployment achieved 1938 through
- Labour Service Corps From 1935 compulsary for all men aged 18-25 to serve in the Corps for sixth months.Unemplyed men would be used to build schools,motorways and hospitals funded by the government.
- From 1935 all men compelled to do military service for two years.
- Rearmament provided thousands of jobs in arms factories and greatly boosted heavy industy.
- Hitler determinded to make Germany Self-Sufficient POLICY OF AUTARKY.
- 1934 schacht made Economic Minister tried to make germany less dependant of imported raw materials and encouraged growth of German industry.
- Schacht was later replaced by Goering brought a four year plan for the economy. Higher targets for rearmament and tried to move Germany close to autarky. Experiments begun to produce artificial replacements for oil and rubber they failed.
- Labour Front replaced trade unions. Workers were not allowed to leave their jobs without government permission,strikes made illegal.Opposition rare.
- Late 1930's workers accepted long working hours lack of rights because they felt secure in their jobs,many pleased German Economy was recovering.
- 'Strength Through Joy' movement organised leisure activities and provided cheap holidays and entertainments .The movement also helped production of 'people's car' (volkswagen) cheap enough for many workers to afford them.
- Many germans mid 1930's pleased the apparent improvements to their lives.Compared with the continuining depression in countires such as USA Britain umemployment falling rapidly and industry was expading. Germans regaining pride in their country.
- Reinforced 1936 Berlin Olympics. Developing armed forces ( ignored the limits of the ToV) Germans could feel pride in the reoccupation of the Rhineland 1936 and union with Austria in March 1938.
- Womens role Kinder,kuche,Kirche
- Law for the Reduction of Unemplyment,financial incentives for women to stay at home.
- Nazis encourage as many births as possible of 'racially pure' children.Financial Incentives for this.
- Most productive mothers recieved special medals.
- German woman who held responsibility before 1933 lost status. Female docors and civil servants sacked.From 1936 women could no longer be judges.
- Campaigns to direct women on how they should look hair in a bun or plait no make-up.
- On other hand women who were happy to be mothers and remained loyal to their fruhrer were very happy with their lifestyles.
- 1933 Nazi organised Boycott of all jewish business,doctors,dentists etc.. Jewish shops marked star of daivd and the word 'jude'
- Education jewish children intimidated at school Germans were taught that jews were unclean and responsible for Germants defeat in WW1.
- 1935 Nuremburg Laws introduced
- Jews could no longer be German Citizens
- Marriages between Jews and Aryans were forbidden.
- Jews had to wear a yellow star on their clothing.
- Early November 1938 Polish Jew Herschel Grynszpan shot a german diplomat in Paris.
- Hitler ordered an immediate attack on Jews and their property in Germany.
- Between 9 and 10 November thousands of jewish businesses were attacked and 200 synagogues burned down.
- Kritstallnacht 'The night of Broekn Glass'.
- Violence against the Jews in Germany increased Himmler head of the SS began to expand plans for building concentration camps.
Persecution of other groups within Nazi Society.
- Gypsies has long been viewed with suspicion and hatred because of their different lifestyle.
- Nuremburg Laws used against them.
- Homeless people rounded up and put to forced labour.
- Those who suffered mental of physical problems even worse.Hitler wanted to create a master race of superior Aryans.
- Any German who suffered from disabilities had to be sterilised so they did not pass on less than perfect genes.
- End of 1930's a policy had started of mercy killing those who did not measure up to the Aryan ideal.
- German Culture was restricted. Only films,drama,music and art that glorified the Nazis was allowed.Anything seen as decadent was banned.
- Jewish writers and composers were banned. Jewish intellectuals lost their university positions.
- Some scientists emigrated Albert Einstein who later helped to build nuclear bomb in the USA.