Treaty of Versailles
Months of hard negotiation and compromise ended in the 28th of June when two German representatives signed the treaty. It was very harsh on Germany. The economies of the Big Three were all very damaged, particularly Britain and France which had a total 9 million casualties.Clemenceau, or La Tigre, wanted to cripple Germany. Wilson, as an idealist wanted a more peaceful mind and had 14 points which included German troops to leave Russia, a League of Nations, no secret treaties and self-determination. Lloyd George had mixed feelings, he wanted to keep Germany as a trading partner but also prevent it from being able to attack.
There were a lot of disagreements and compromises. Wilson disagreed about what happened to the Rhineland and the coalfields in the Saar, but he gave in. In return, Clemenceau and Lloyd George let him do what he wanted with Eastern Europe, despite their reservations about self determination.
1) War guilt, Article 231.
2) Armed forces: army 100,000 men, no conscription, no submarines, aircraft or armoured vehicles, only six battleships and the Rhineland was demilitarised.
3) Germany had to pay reparations whcih were decided in 1921 at 6,600 million.
4) West Prussia and Posen, Upper Silesia and Danzig was to go to Poland. Alsace Lorraine weny yo France. Saarland was a plebiscite to be held for 15 years. Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia became independent states, these had been given to Germany by Russia in 1918.
Overall it lost 10% of its land, all its overseas, 16% of its coalfields and iron resources and 12.5% of its population. Many were unhappy. France felt it wasnt harsh eneough and he lost the 1920 election, Lloyd George recieved a hero's welcome. Wilson however, was very dissapointed. The American Congress refused to approve the Treaty.
Other Peace Treaties
Treaty of St Germain 1919
This treaty separated Austria from Hungaryto stop Austria from remaining as a leading power. Bohemia and Moravia went to the new state of Czechoslovakia. Bosnia and Herzegovina went to the new state of Yugoslavia.Austria also lost territory to Poland and Italy. Italy was not very happy as they felt they should have got more land. Austria suffered severe economic problems after the war.
Treaty of Trianon 1920
Hungarian territory to different countries. Transylvania went to Romania, Ruthenia and Slovakia to Czechoslovakia and Slovenia and Croatia to Yugoslavia. A number of other territories went to Romania.
Treaty of Neuilly 1919
Bulgaria did well compared to Austria, Germany and Hungary. However it lost land to Romania and Yugoslavia and also lost its access to the Mediterranean. It also had to disarm. As they played quite a small part in the war it was treated less harshly. Nevertheless, many Bulgarians were governed by foregin powers by 1920.
Treaty of Sevres
The last of the treaties was with Turkey which was important because of its important strategic position and the size of its empire. Smyrna went to Greece became a mandate under French control. Turkey also lost control of straits running ino the Black Sea. They also had to formally accept that counties in their former empire, such as Egypt,Tunisia and Morocco were no independent or were under British or French protection. It was not a success. Turkey were furious. Turkish nationalists led by Mustafa Kemal challenged the terms of treay by force when they drove the Greeks out of Smyrma. In 1923, the Treaty of Lausanne Smyrma was returned to Turkey.
The motives of Britain and France were suspect..The Arabs who had helped Britain to win the war, gained very little. Palestine wass a controversial area.
1933 AAA - Agricultural Adjustment Act paid for farmers not to plant crop to reduce surpluses, helped modernise farming and in extreme cases even helped farmers to pay mortgages.
1933 CCC - Civilian Conservation Corps took unmarried men age 18-25 and gave them six months of work, usually in woods or national parks. They could sign on again at the end of the six months if they still hadnt found work. Provided jobs for 2.5 million men in the 10 years it was running and men would send $30 home each month.
TVA - Tennessee Valley Authority created dams to prevent extreme floods and droughts in the areas. This also helped agriculture in the area.