How and Why Germany became a Republic in November
- Germans were calling for peace by the end of September 1918 because Allied troops had broken through the German Hindenburg line on the Western Front making defeat in the war look inevitable.
- Events of the German Revolution (October- November 1918) included: blocking Germany's ports causing food shortages, in October, sailors mutinied at Wilhelmshaven and continued to mutiny at Kiel when the order was given for a last attack on the British Navy. Soviets and Councils were also set up all over Germany.
- The Kaiser was forced to abdicate from Germany because President Wilson made it clear that there could be no peace if the Kaiser remained in office.
- On 9th November, the Kaiser stood down and Friedrich Ebert, one of the leaders of the Social Democratic party, announced that Germany was now a republic. Ebert was to be president.