Dr. Martin Luther
Was a professor of biblical studies at Wittenberg in saxony.
On Saturday the 31st of October 1517 he put a notice on the writtenburg church
The 95 theses about criticising the church in how it worked in Germany
Was written in Latin
Indulgences and heresy
Martin thought indulgences were a scam, only so the pope could build st.peters basilica in Rome and to pay off debts of the archibishop
He thought that no one could buy their way into heaven and lessen threor time in purgatory
The church sold certificates of indulgences
John tetzel sold indulgences
Heresy - to go against the teachings of the church. In the 16th century you could be burned for it.
A burning issue
December 10th 1520 at the university of Wittenberg .
The students were burning Martins books. The pope Leo X had issued a bull against Martin, a statement making him a heretic and demanding to burn all his books
Martin researched a lot about indulgences and found nothing that said that the pope had authority over the church. He began thinking that the pope was satans creature
Martin was then called to the imperial parliament at worms to explain himself to the new emperor, Charles V.
The diet of worms and kidnapping
Martin spoke in German and was asked to repeat it in Latin.
The pope couldn't agree with him
Martin was condemned a ban of empire, which made him an outlaw, he could be killed or arrested
Martin had been kidnapped on his way back to Wittenberg by his elector, Frederick the wise.
He wanted to keep him safe so he kidnapped him and kept Martin in his castle and disguised him as a solider.
When Martin was gone, the Germans carried out the reformation that he had started. Priests could marry, and a lot of the curch service was now in German
He eventually came out of hiding. He had started the Protestant church
Changes and consequences
Why king Henry VIII made a break with Rome.
Love - he wanted to divorce and get married again but she gave him a girl
Money - the church had a lot of money and he needed it for the people fighting in France but he spent all the money on wars
Faith - a lot of people in England became protestant but his new church was to protestant, more than he wanted
Power - the Roman Catholic Church had a lot of power over England but the Protestants managed to end the popes power over people it the country divided instead of becoming united
What did Henry do?
Henry used parliament to help him
Henry out himself in charge of the Church of England
He executed people who stayed loyal to the church
Henry closed all the churches and monasteries and took the riches
Many people thought that Mary was bringing back catholism.
However the way we see it today has been influenced by Foxe's book of martyr published by a Protestant in Elizabeth's regin
People who died were treated like heroes and executions were unpopular
Mary burned 284 heretics in her five year regin
Problems facing Elizabeth
War - Britain had been at war with France
Spain had supported Britain but now made peace with France
The war was not going well
Sex - she was not married and had no heir
She was the wrong one because out people wanted s strong man on to the throne
Money - the country was bankrupt because of expensive wars
Bad harvest map East that prices were high and people starved
Religion - there had been major problems since herpnry died
Mary turned the country back to catholism
Catholics did not want a catholic queen the pope said she was not the rightful heir
Elizabeth would face many problems to kill her
Mary queen of scots in England
Mary queen of scots in England
Mary the queen of Scotsman been queen of Scotland and had been married to the heir of the throne of France. When he died she returned to Scotland but was imprisoned for plotting to kill her next husband. When she escaped she thought her cousin elizabeth would help but she was put in prison in England because she was afraid that Mary might take her throne
Gilbert Gifford gg
Babington wanted to free Mary to put her on the throne and overthrow Elizabeth . He gave the message to gg who was Francis walsinghams advisor who was a loyal person to the queen. He gave the code to Philips who cracked it for him, the pen he gave it to gg and it was with Mary. And Mary replied yes to overthrow Elizabeth.
Mary was beheaded and babington and his friends who helped him were hung drawn and quartered.
The Spanish armada
King philip II decided to attack England because it was becoming Protestant, and robbing the Spanish gold from America. In the early 1588 drake sailed a small fleet into Cadiz and burnt many of the Spanish ships.
April1588 the armada set sail and July 19th England spotted the armada. The English the chased the armada up the English Channel.
27th July armada dropped anchor near Calais. The English sent 80 fires ships to attack the armada and they sperated. The English attacked and the armada was beaten and sailed home.
They wanted to get home but they could not risk going through the English Channel so they sailed around Scotland. The sea was dagerous and many ships were destroyed or damaged. Only 67 ships got home
Reasons for sending the armada
The execution of Mary, queen of scots.
The pope wanted rid of Elizabeth
The rejection of his marriage proposal
English sailors such as Francis drake had been robbing Spanish treasure ships coming back from South America. Elizabeth had turned a blind eye to this
Elizabeth had secretly been helping the Dutch Protestants who were trying to overthrow the Spanish rule in the Netherlands