Industrial Rev - ANAESTHETICS

IMPROVED -no pain in surgury

1846-1870 Black period - death rate rose as wounds exposed for longer

reduced infection now

Joseph Lister @ forefront using carbolic acid - not used by all


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reduced death rates from 50 to 15 %

carbolic unpleasant

1aseptic surgury is to make an area germ free - instead of killing them once they arealready their .

2 instruments now sterilised using high temps , theatres , wear gloves, gowns masks , hats . area kept clean & fed strile air

HUMPHREY DAVY 1799 -identified NITROUS OXIDE (laughing gas) as a possible anesthic - but this was ignored at this time .

JAMES SIMPSON- 1847 - DISCOVERD chloroform with his friends .

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chloroform was used widely to reduce pain in child birth- but was discoverd to cause liver demage- so they returned to using ETHER 1910 .

1842 - USA cRAWFORD long - discoverd effects of using ETHER- idea spread t GB USED BY Robert Liston . 

1846-1870 anaestics allowd LONGER, MORE COMPLEX PROCEEDURES - this increased risks from infection & bleeding. Death Rates Rose IN the black period of surgury 1846-1870 .

DISCOVERING A RELIABLE anaestiv had to wait for improvements in Chemical industry - from INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION

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1900 KARL LANDSTEIN - Discovered Blood Groups- Blood transfusions done without clotting blood .

1895 william Roentgen discoverd Xrays-allowing bones to be seen through the flesh - look @ broken bones .

1st radioactive isotopes discovered cud treat cancer as part of radiotherpy & use as tracers in diagnoises 1980 keyhole surgury developed - surg less invasive .BECQUEREL ,PIERRE& MARIE CURIE DISCOVERED

1951 1st organ transplant kidney - big problem was organ rejection by immun system - early drugs kill the immune system -patient then open to pneumonia

1983 Cydosporine approved 4 use fungus derived drug - still used todayARCHIBALD Mcindoe worked with war victims/pilots trap in burning aircraft

Plastic surgery used widely -developed more dure tantibacterialdrugs & surgical technique 

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Renaissance MED 1450-1600

 Rebirth - of imp works Hippocrates & Galen were recovered . New faith in 4 Humours., treatment  & herbal remedies . Aso Scientific Approach to Med - based on OBSERSVATION .


Educated people were expected t do Art & Science Vimportant as Now Med Journals were illustrated .works of Galen ( came from East in Arabic )were translated to Latin & printed..

Reformation weakened the hold of Catholic Church on Education & learning- causing new theories t b developed

War LED T more injuries - bullets causedmore demage than arrows/blades

Surgeons not good profession - Pare' only recognised when king approved

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william HARVEY

1573-1657 Challenged Galen ideas

Realised blood was pumped around not consumed like Galen said .

identified diff between arteries & veins

Blood changes colour as it passsess through the lungs studied animals & humans dissections & found this

did nt change surgery until discovery of blood groups 1900s - was important in development of anatomy

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Medieval Europe

Galens work /ideas followed

Surgeons low regard

Dissection of corpses brought the knwledge of anatomy to Roman standards

Surgical traetments few & simple

Wine used as antiseptic

1376 REcipe of hemlock , opium,henbane used as anaestic - more likely killed then worked

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Arab world

ran medical schools which trained doctors

prohibited fron dissection

ABU AL -QASIM - WROTE A BOOK DESCRIBING amputations , removal bladder stones& dental surgery

IBN NAFIS - understood respire -circuraly system

heart divided into 2 with no pores connecting them

understand the pulse 7 SAID THERE WAS NO SPIRIT IN THE HEART


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