reduced death rates from 50 to 15 %
1aseptic surgury is to make an area germ free - instead of killing them once they arealready their .
2 instruments now sterilised using high temps , theatres , wear gloves, gowns masks , hats . area kept clean & fed strile air
HUMPHREY DAVY 1799 -identified NITROUS OXIDE (laughing gas) as a possible anesthic - but this was ignored at this time .
JAMES SIMPSON- 1847 - DISCOVERD chloroform with his friends .
card 3 indust
chloroform was used widely to reduce pain in child birth- but was discoverd to cause liver demage- so they returned to using ETHER 1910 .
1842 - USA cRAWFORD long - discoverd effects of using ETHER- idea spread t GB USED BY Robert Liston .
1846-1870 anaestics allowd LONGER, MORE COMPLEX PROCEEDURES - this increased risks from infection & bleeding. Death Rates Rose IN the black period of surgury 1846-1870 .
DISCOVERING A RELIABLE anaestiv had to wait for improvements in Chemical industry - from INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTION
1900 KARL LANDSTEIN - Discovered Blood Groups- Blood transfusions done without clotting blood .
1895 william Roentgen discoverd Xrays-allowing bones to be seen through the flesh - look @ broken bones .
1st radioactive isotopes discovered cud treat cancer as part of radiotherpy & use as tracers in diagnoises 1980 keyhole surgury developed - surg less invasive .BECQUEREL ,PIERRE& MARIE CURIE DISCOVERED
1951 1st organ transplant kidney - big problem was organ rejection by immun system - early drugs kill the immune system -patient then open to pneumonia
1983 Cydosporine approved 4 use fungus derived drug - still used todayARCHIBALD Mcindoe worked with war victims/pilots trap in burning aircraft
Plastic surgery used widely -developed more dure tantibacterialdrugs & surgical technique
Renaissance MED 1450-1600
Rebirth - of imp works Hippocrates & Galen were recovered . New faith in 4 Humours., treatment & herbal remedies . Aso Scientific Approach to Med - based on OBSERSVATION .
1476 INVENTION OF PRINTING PRESS - MADE BOOKS READILY AVAILABLE .Challenging Galen - ideas now
Educated people were expected t do Art & Science Vimportant as Now Med Journals were illustrated .works of Galen ( came from East in Arabic )were translated to Latin & printed..
Reformation weakened the hold of Catholic Church on Education & learning- causing new theories t b developed
War LED T more injuries - bullets causedmore demage than arrows/blades
Surgeons not good profession - Pare' only recognised when king approved
1573-1657 Challenged Galen ideas
Realised blood was pumped around not consumed like Galen said .
identified diff between arteries & veins
Blood changes colour as it passsess through the lungs studied animals & humans dissections & found this
did nt change surgery until discovery of blood groups 1900s - was important in development of anatomy
Galens work /ideas followed
Surgeons low regard
Dissection of corpses brought the knwledge of anatomy to Roman standards
Surgical traetments few & simple
Wine used as antiseptic
1376 REcipe of hemlock , opium,henbane used as anaestic - more likely killed then worked
ran medical schools which trained doctors
prohibited fron dissection
ABU AL -QASIM - WROTE A BOOK DESCRIBING amputations , removal bladder stones& dental surgery
IBN NAFIS - understood respire -circuraly system
heart divided into 2 with no pores connecting them
understand the pulse 7 SAID THERE WAS NO SPIRIT IN THE HEART
OBSERVED THA BLOOD WAS MIXED WITH AIR