Crime was at high rate in the industrial period and people were so poor they resorted to theft and murder to get money for food for their families. However, the Industrial revolution brought factory jobs which meant crimes rates of people needing to steal ad murder to live should have dropped but the population increased so still many people were out of jobs.
In the period stated, philosophers started to think that perhaps it was better to reform the criminal rather than scare others away with harsh punishments. Philosophers believed a better human race could be created if criminals were reformed.
1838 - Parkhurst Juvenile Prison set up. Four months solitary silence adn two years leg irons.
1847 - Juvenile courts materialised, seperate from adult courts. Seven years later, refrometery schools were set up to YO's out of crime
1870 - All children 5 - 10 years at school. 1900, crime figures fro YO's started dropping and all under 12 went to school.
1899 _ YO's no longer spent any part of sentence in adult prison. Borstal, special schools, were set up to encourage refromaty and responsibility in YO's.
Elizabeth Fry improved Newgate Prison and changed prison ships. See page in excercise book.
1750 - Henry Fielding sets up Bow Street Runners
1763 - Fielding's brother John sets up horse patrol.
1792 - Seven areas of London with police force, more needed!
1829 - Sir Robert Peel set up Metropolitan Police for whole country.
1856 - Every town in country had police force.
At frist the police were, an invasion of privacy, threatening for English freedom and wasteful of money but slowly people realised theat the police force did a good job and people started to respect and like them.
Transportation took criminals to Australia as punishments to do hard labour.
Why? The government thought having tough people in their colonies whould prevent enemy invasion, that by taking criminals out of the country it would lower crime rates, and it was seen as midway between harsh and mild punishment!
Do you think transportation was a good punishment for the time? Was it fair?
Crime Rates fell for four reasons:
Police force operated and caught and punished criminals.
More prsoperity, less need to steal.
Elizabeth Fry made criminals reform through her work.
Fairer punishment system. Less revengeance.
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