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  • Created on: 14-01-12 21:15

How the USSR took control of Eastern Europe after

  • The USA and the USSR were the two major world super powers
  • Relations between them rapidly went downhill
  • The USA and the USSR became very competitive
  • They each wanted to be the strongest and felt threat from one another
  • There was an arms race to have the most powerful weapons
  • Germany surrendered in May 1945, but the war against Japan Continued
  • In August 1945,the USA dropped two atom bombs on Japan, destroying the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki
  • Between 1945 and 1948, Stalin installed pro-soviet puppet governments in Poland, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Czechoslovakia
  • Freedom of speech was suppressed
  • Non communist parties were banned and communist parties were controlled by the cominform to consist soley of Russian-style communities.
  • Comecon set up in 1949 worked to nationalise the states industries and collectivise agriculture 
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'Iron Curtain' between the East and West

  • Increasing tensions between the USA and the USSR became known as the 'Cold War'
  • It was called the 'Cold War' because there wasn't any direct fighting
  • Instead both sides tried to gain the upper hand with alliances and plans
  • They were afraid of another war
  • Countries in Western Europe tended to support the USA
  • Most countries in Eastern Europe were dominated by the USSR
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US Influence and the Berlin Blockade

  • The USA didn't want the whole world to go communist and were worried about the spread of communism
  • Two ways that Truman tried to stop the spread of communism:
  • The Marshall Plan
    - Aid was promised to European countries to rebuiled economies
    The Truman Doctrine
    -The USA would support any nation threatened by communist takeover

  • Soviet opposed moves of USA and Britain combining their zones
  • Stalin wanted to keep Germany weak, so he decided to blockade Berlin
  • Berlin was in East Germany, which was controlled by the USSR so Stalin ordered that all land communication between west berlin and the outside world should be cut off
  • Two new states were formed: East and West Germany.
  • Western powers formed NATO against the communist threat
  • The eastern block formed a Warsaw pact in 1955 - a military treaty designed to prevent NATO 
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How the USSR dealt with opposition in Poland, 1980

  • Regular protests in Poland
  • They didn't try to get rid of the government or challenge the soviet union
  • They simply wanted to improve standards of living
  • The workers were keenly aware that it would only survive if they could statisfy the Poles
  • The membership of solidarity reached its peak at 9.4 million in January 1981, more than 1/3 of all workers in Poland
  • Goverment gave into solidarity in 1980
  • The union was the strongest in those industries that were the most important to the government: Ship building and heavy indutry. A general strike in these industries would have devestated Poland's economy. 
  • In the early stages the union was not seen by its members as an alternative to the communist party: more than one million members (30%) of the communist party joined Solidarity.
  • Lech Walesa was very careful: in his negotiations with the government. Behind the scenes he worked with the communist leader to avoid provoking a dispute that may then involve the Soviet Union. 
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How the USSR dealt with opposition in Hungary, 195

  • 20,000 Hungarians were killed or wounded
  • Nagy was arrested and later shot
  • Kadar became Prime Minister and ensured loyalty towards USSR
  • Western countries didn't come to Hungary's aid
  • When Khrushchev first came to power he seemed less harsh than Stalin
  • The response to the Hungarian Rising showed that he could be tough
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How the USSR dealt with opposition in Czechoslovak

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How and why Soviet Control of Eastern Europe colla

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The reasons for the building of the Berlin Wall, 1

  • In 1949, Stalin ended the Berlin Blockade
  • Two new states were formed: West Germany and East Germany

    West Germany
    German Federal Republic 

    East Germany
    Communist: German Democratic Republic 

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Treaty of Versailles

  • Signed in June 1919
  • Agreement dealt with Germany
  • Germany lost a lot of land (especially Alsace and Lorraine)
  • Germany wasn't allowed to have troops in the Rhineland as it was close enough to invade France and Belgium from so it was demilitarised
  • New countries set up and some contained many different nationalities within their borders
  • They were potentially unstable
  • Not only did they lose land, they have to take blame for the war 'the war-guilt clause' 
  • Reduced armed force numbers and vehicles
  • Forced to pay a sum of money in reparations
  • Areas around the world that previously belonged to Germany were now called mandates 
  • These mandates were run by the league of nations
  • The league of nations was set up to keep world peace 
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Soviet Control

  • After world war two the communists quickly gained control of Eastern Europe
  • The situations in many of the countries helped the communists
  • The soviet leader Stalin helped the communist parties in them to win power through cominform he made these countries follow the same policies as the Soviet Union
    - they became one party states
    - the communist party was the only legal party
    - secret police arrested the communist opponents
    - there was a need to restore law and order
    - provided a good excuse to station soviet troops in each country
    - the goverment followed economic policies of the soviet union to rebuild them
    - they took over all industry
  • Workers and farmers were told what to produce through comecon
  • Stalin ensured the countries of Eastern Europe traded with the USSR
  • He promised aid to countries that co-operated
  • He threatened to use the armed forces to crush opposition. 
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Cominform & Comecon

Soviet Dominated Governments: 

  • East Germany, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Bulgaria

Com(munist)inform(ation) - COMINFORM
- co ordinates the various communist governments
-runs meetings and sends out instructions to communist governments about what the soviet union wanted them to do

Com(munist)econ(omic assistance)  
- co ordinates the industries and trade of the eastern european countries
- members of comecon traded mostly with one another rather than trading with the west
- comecon favoured the USSR
- set up a bank for socialist countries in 1964 

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Reactions to the treaty

Some people said the treaty was fair

  • the war had caused so much death and damage
  • Germany had to be made weaker to reduce threat of war again
  • People in France and Britain wanted revenge 

Others said the treaty was too harsh

  • The Germans were left weak and resentful, could this lead to more war?
  • Politicians listened to them so they could stay in power
  • Many of the newer countries were poor
  • Germany couldn't afford the reparation
  • The peacemakers faced problems and pressure from people at home
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The rise of Khrushchev

  • When Stalin died in 1953, Nikiti Khrushchev emerged by 1955
  • He seemed very different from Stalin
  • He ended long feuds
  • He talked of peaceful existence with the west
  • He made plans to reduce expenditure on arms
  • He wanted to improve living conditions 
  • He closed down Cominform
  • He released thousands of political prisoners
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  • Openly spoke negatively of Stalin and undid his actions in a programme
  • Invited Tito to Moscow and dismissed Stalin's former foreign minister Molotov
  • Denounced him as a wicked tyrant who was an enemy of people and kept all the power to himself
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