Monarchy and Civil War 1
Power: Having the ability to get people to do what you want them to
Key beliefs of Kings in the 16th Century:
- God chose the King
- Nobody could argue with the King because it would be blasphamy against God
- Witchcraft was Evil
- Divine Appointment - God chose the King
Causes of the English Civil War 1
Causes of the English Civil War
- Charles intoduced Ship-Money, and people who didn't pay it were arrested. Parliament stopped Ship-Money and punished unpopular ministers who had been appointed by the King.
- Parliament intriced the Grand Remonstrate which reduces the King's Power
- Charples took 400 soldiers to arrest 5 MPs (this shows Charles was afraid of Parliament's power)
- Parliament took control of the Army
- Parliament executed the Earl of Strafford and imprisoned William Laud
- Charles ruled without Parliament for 11 years
- Charles appointed Ministers who were not liked by Parliament
- Parliament forced Charles to meet with then at least every 3 years
Causes of the English Civil War 2
- Parliament took control of the church
- Charles appointed William Laud as Archbishop of Canturbury. William made the church more Catholic
- William forced the Scots to accept the English Prayer back, which led to the Scots Invading.
- Parliament demanded that the religious reforms were reversed
Who's side you fought on depended on:
- Where you lived
Causes of the English Civil War 3
- A supporter/friend of the King
- MP's Friends/Family
Thae Battle of Newbury
Parliament were confident that they were going to win because:
- They had Oliver Cromwell
- They had 3 armies
- They had 10,000 more men than the Royalists
- They attacked from Front and Back
- It was very equal
- The planned attack didn't work
- The Royalists walked off without being stopped or threatened
What Lessons were Learnt?
- The commanders weren't up to scratch
- The Army needed changing
The New Modal Army
- Ordinary Men could be officers
- They were mainly the same religion
- New Clothing and Equipment
- Training for Fighting, Horse Care and Gun Cleaning
- Strict Rules
Why did Parliament Win?
- New Modal Army
- Charles' Allies didn't help him
- They stopped Mps being generals
- Prince Rupert of Rhine made bad desicions
- Allies with Scotland
1646 - Charles' Trial
We know Parliament were nervous because:
- Armed soldiers brought Charles in
- Only 68 of the 135 judges turned up
- They didn't make Charles take his hat off
- The man in charge wore a metal lined hat
- They took Charles out of the trial
- Afterwards Parliament went to pray
- The death warrant was only signed by 59 of the 68 judges
Cromwell in Power 1649-1658
He had a lot of power...
- He sent his army to Ireland to punish Catholics for attacking English Protestants
- In Drogheda, men, women and children sheltered in a church that Oliver ordered to be burnt down - 1949
Cromwell In Power
- He introduced Religious Freedom. Anyone could worship any religion.
- Jews were allowed to live in the country for the first time in since 1290
- December 1952 - Charles banned Christmas. Soldiers were ordered to confiscate Christmas dinners and decorations.
- April - Some MPs who didn't support Cromwell tried to remove him.
- He entered the House of Commons with his army expelling MPs who disagreed with him. They were replaced with Mps who Cromwell knew would support him.
- Cromwell was given the title of Lord Protector. He accepted as he thought he had been chosen by God for his role.
- Some MPs disagreed with the title of Lord Protector so Cromwell closed down Parliament and ruled on his own for another 2 years.
How the Monarchy changed after Cromwell
- Monarchy was restored - The throne was passed to King Charles II
- Parliament allowed him the same amount of power that Kings had enjoyed before the Civil War
How he stayed in charge
- He was allowed to choose his minister
- Control of Army
- Ruled without Parliament for 4 years
- He stopped passing the law that no Catholics could sit on the throne of England
- They didn't give him enough money
- Parliament interfered with succession
- He has to hide his religion from Parliament
Causes of the Industrial Revolution
Revolution - A sudden, dramatic, lasting change
- Inventions - Richard Arkwright's spinning frame was too big to fit in a home, so he built factories where he could fit his inventions
- Money - Factory owners made huge profits as many people worked in the factories
- Urbanisation - As a result of new job oppurtunities in the city, families flock in to seek a new career
- Natural Resources - Britain was rich in Iron and Coal. Iron was used to make factory machinery, and coal was used to power steam engines.
- Machines spit out smoke and in some factories, workers came out covered in black soot by the end of the day
- Many machines had no safety precuations, causing injuries, and in some cases, death.
- Children were used for simpler, unskilled jobs
- The only light present was the sunlight that came through the windows
- Women and children worked in the factories as well as men as they were much cheaper to employ
- Children worked for little or no money
- "39,000 people living in 7860 which were dark, damp, dirty and unventilated"
- Dungheaps across the street
- The river is contaminated, but people still drink from it and clean their clothes in it
- Privies are small huts with a hole in the ground, used as a toilet
- Privies have no storage/disposal system, so faeces and urine leak into the river.
- The privy is so dirty that the inhabitants of the court can only enter or leave the court after wading though puddles of stale urine and excrement.
The fall of the death rate:
- Cholera epidemics (32,000 killed in 1832 and almost double in 1848)
- The great stink - The hot summer made the smell of human waste worse and caused many fatal illnesses.
The 1848 Public Health Act states:
- (paraphrased) A national board of health is to established to build facilities to improve sewage
- New houses must be built with frains and toilets
- Charge tax to pay for improvementa
- Appoint medical officers
- Joseph Bazalgette - a civil engineer - built 83 miles of sewers to crack down on diseases like Cholera
- He used 318m bricks
- This removed 420,000,000 gallons of sewage per day
- A physician, John Snow, funded Bazalgette's project with around £1bn in today's money
- He made a map of how Cholera was caught through diseased water and contagion (physical contact with a sufferer)
The Political System
- Women could not vote
- Elections had to be held at least every seven years
- Votes were announced in public
- 5% of the adult population could vote
- In the counties only rich property owners had the right to vote.
The Great Reform Act of 1832
- More people were allowed to vote in elections (almost doubled to 800,000) 1 in 5 men could now vote
- Big towns like Manchester and Liverpool were given MPs for the first time
- Some of the old rotten boroughs were removed
Chartists - Working Class protestors who fought for equality among gender and wealth. As well as MPs being paid and secret votes (not announced in public)
British Empire - Key Colonies
Size - 33.7 million sq. km
Number of colonies - Around 60 have gained independence (some still remain)
- South Africa
- New Zealand
Why Britain wanted an empire
- Power - being in control of many countries makes the rest of the world afraid of Britain
- Money - We used up much of our colonies with facilities that would make Britain lots of money. In China, we forced opium to be grown, causing famine, as the Chinese had no more crops
- Trade - Having so many countries in our control, our trade routes were hugely expanded
- Slaves - We could increase our working force and profit by enslaving people from other countries. For example, we sent many Africans to America