History- Conflict and Tension


Aims and Motives for Peace

Clemenceau (France):

  • To cripple Germany
  • Reduce armed forces and push back Germany's border
  • Take away Germany's defences

Llyod George (Britain):

  • Keep Germany strong enough to trade
  • If Germany was treated badly they would want revenge
  • Didnt want other European countries to become too powerful

Wilson (America):

  • Didn't want Germany treated too harshly
  • League of Nations
1 of 23

The Treaty of Versailles terms

Anschluss between Germany and Austria was forbidden

Germany was not allowed to join the League

Navy was reduced 100,000 men

Lost Togo, Kaiser Wilhelm Land, The Cameroons

Article 231: Germany had to take the blame for the war

The Rhineland was to be demilitartised

Had to pay reparations of £6.6 billion

The Saar (industrial) was taken under custody of the League

2 of 23

Satisfaction of the Allies


  • Too harsh
  • Gained land
  • Lost trade partner


  • Not harsh enough
  • Pleased for their money gain
  • Wanted more in reparations
  • Angry that Germany still had an army

The USA:

  • Too harsh
3 of 23

The League of Nations Summary

Based in Switzerland

Permanent members made big decisions:

France, UK, Italy, Japan

Losing countries were not allowed to join

America chose not to join even though it was their idea

4 of 23

Dealing with Agression

Economic Sanctions- countries in the League were not allowed to trade with the disputing countries

Moral condemnation - calling out the country for its behaviour

Mitigation- countries getting together to discuss problems

5 of 23

Structure of the League

The council (Italy, Japan, UK and France) met 5 times a year and in emergencies

The Assmebly:

  • One representative from each country. 
  • Met 1 time a year
  • could recommend actions to the council

The Secretariat:

  • Day to day workings of the League
  • Ensured that co-ordinations were maintained 
6 of 23

Agencies in the League

Permanent Court of International Justice:

  • Gave legal advice to members
  • Decided who was in the wrong in disputes

International Labour Organisation:

  • Aimed to improve working conditions worldwide

Refugees commission:

  • After WW1 aimed to return refugees back to their country

Slavery Commission:

  • Aimed to abolish slavery

Health Commission:

aimed to deal with world health issues

7 of 23

Successes of the League

Aaland Islands:

  • Sweden and Finland both claimes the islands. 
  • League gave the islands to Finland, forbade the building of forts on them
  • Both countries accepted the decisions


  • Greece invaded when Greek soldiers were killed on the border
  • League forces Greece to withdraw and pay compensation

Upper Silesia:

  • League split Upper Silesia into sections
  • Germany complained that Poland had more industrial land
  • Poland complained they had less land but just as many people
  • Both countries accepted the League's decision
8 of 23

Failures of the League


  • Mussolini invaded Greece after Italians were murdered.
  • League condemned Mussolini but he complained 
  • Greece was forced to apologise and pay compensation
  • showed how bigger, stronger countries could ignore the League


  • Lithuania asked League for help when Poland invaded
  • The League didnt do anything as Poland was a strong ally
9 of 23

International Agreements

Locarno Treaties:

  • Countries agreed to not go to war with each other
  • League wasnt involved as it was suggested by Germany who was not part of it
  • Relationships between countries improved.

Rapallo Treaty:

  • Germany and Russia to work together
  • League wasn't involved as Russia and Germany were not members.
10 of 23

International Agreements

Kellog- Briand Pact:

  • 65 countries including Germany, France and USA
  • War would not be used to solve disputes
  • League was not consulted as Germany and USA were not members

Washington Arms Conference:

  • Major countries (Japan, Britain, USA, France) agreed the maximum size of their navies
  • Britain and France attended idependantly from the League
11 of 23

The Manchurian Crisis Causes


  • 1929 - Wall Street Crash
  • Japan suffered as nobody could afford their silk
  • Japan looked to invade for natural resources
  • Manchuria was ideal to invade as they already had an industry and railway there
12 of 23

Manchurian Crisis Events

Elephants Dont Ignore Little Mice

E xplosion on South Manchurian railway

D enied involvement by Chinese

I nvasion of Macnhuria by the Kwantung army

L eague did nothing as Lytton report took too long

M anchuko was named by Japanese after successful invasion.

Japan left the League in 1933

13 of 23

Manchurian Crisis Consequences for the League

One of the permanent members left.

Militaristic countries saw how powerless the League was

The League failed as they didnt have their own army, Lytton report took too long, didnt want to commit resources to Asia because of the Great Depression and Economic Sanctions wouldnt have worked

14 of 23

The Abyssinian Crisis Cause

  • Mussolini wanted to rebuild the Roman Empire
  • Abyssinia had natural resources
  • This would be useful during the depression
  • Italy was humiliated that Abyssinia defeated them once before when Italy tried to invade
  • Britain and France formed the Stresa Front with Italy
  • Mussolini thought that they wouldnt want to endanger the agreement by trying to stop him
15 of 23

Events of the Abyssinian Crisis

Mums In Surrey Like Curry Indeed

M ussolini invaded Abysinnia

I talian Troops clashed with Abyssinians at Wal Wal

S ecret agreement between Italy and France

L eague did nothing

C ondemned by the League but had no affect

I taly left the League

16 of 23

Reasons that the League failed

  • They had no army
  • Countries were excluded
  • Their sanctions were ignored and didnt work
  • Too slow at responding to problems
  • Powerful countries ignored the League
  • Half of the permanent members left
  • Deals and Treaties were made without consulting the League
17 of 23

Hitler's aims for Germany

  • To abolish the Treaty of Versailles
  • To make allies with Austria
  • To expand Germany's army and Navy
  • To eliminate communism
  • Lebensraum (living space)
  • To unite people of German blood

These caused tension as it seemed like Germany was preparing for a War and was going against the Treaty

18 of 23

Reoccupation of The Rhineland

  • 450 mile long wall on the border of the Rhineland was built
  • France and the USSR signed the Franco- Soviet pact - they would protect eachother if Germany invaded
  • Hitler used the pact to claim Germany was under threat so sent 22,000 soldiers into Rhineland
  • The German soldiers were welcomed by people in the Rhineland
  • Hitler relied on their support
19 of 23

Consequences of the reoccupation

  • Hitler looked for more ways to move around the Treaty
  • Britain and France began rearming
  • Britain and France strengthened the Locarne Pact
  • Mussolini and Hitler worked together to send weapons to Spain where there was a civil war
  • This gave his troops experience
  • Allowed Hitler to focus on Lebensraum
20 of 23

Anchluss with Austria

  • Schuschnigg made a deal with the Nazis. They would have a key position in the government
  • Austrian Nazis were found to have plans to get rid of Schushnigg
  • Schuschnigg agreed to let Nazis take roles of Ministers of finance and war, Nazi restrictions lifted and let out of prison
  • Plebiscite to allow Austria to decide Anschluss
  • Seyss- Inquart took over and stated Austria was in chaos, asked Germany to help
  • Mussolini didnt oppose Anschluss and people greeted the Nazis
  • 99% Austrians voted for Anschluss
21 of 23

The Nazi- Soviet Pact

Germany and the USSR both lost land to Poland and wanted it back

August 1939- pact was signed agreeing that if USSR allowed Germany to invade Poland then they would be given their land back

USSR couldnt trust its allies:

Hitler had been appeased by them too many times

Didnt trust that France could protect them as France didn't protect themselves

Lost faith in the League to protect USSR

22 of 23

The Sudeten Crisis

  • Invading Sudetenland was the first step to destroying Czechoslovakia
  • Hitler wanted to 'save' the German speaking Czechs
  • Was home to forts and Railways.

Hitler was appeased by Neville Chamberlain

23 of 23


No comments have yet been made

Similar Humanities resources:

See all Humanities resources »See all The Armisitice / Treaty of Versailles resources »