American West; topic questions

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Growth of cattle industry after 1865

Civil War- No cattle slaughtered so cattle multiplied and breed drastically

Texas Longhorn- Already adapted for weather on Plains

Railway- Move cattle quicker; refigerated carts

Industrial revolution- More demand for beef

Soldiers in West- More to feed; less resources

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Bust of Industry

Cattle dying- Farmers began to experiment with different breeds of cattle that could not live on the open range.

Overgrazing- There was less grass available for grazing; 1883 drought ruined grass

Demand- Falling demand; less profitable

Winter of 1886/7- Freezing as low as -55 and 15% of herds died

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Charles Goodnight

Pioneered the 'long drive'- Set up Goodnight Loving trail with Oliver Loving

Chuck Wagons- Set up a chuck wagon to have all the supplies on new drive

Soldiers and Reservations- Profitable career 

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Joesph McCoy

Solution to long trail- Cow Towns

First Cow Town- Abilene; very popular; all grass and water needded

Successful- 1867 37000 cattle along Chisholm trail from San Antonia to Abilene

Safer- No rustlers or aggressive mobs

Beef Bonanza- More people followed his succes

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John Illiff

Refigerated Carts- Send meat rather than taking cattle on long drive

Sweeter Meat- Increasing demand

Supplied Indians on reservations- Consistent consumer

Lame Cattle- No need to walk; save money and meat

Successful entrepeneur- Rngae rights soo access to water and grasslands

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Changing role of cowboy

Before- Winter routine on line camps.                                                                                        After- Barbed wire so could ranch and windpump so could ranch any where.

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Problems w/ law and order in mining towns

No federal control- didnt have 60,000 settlers.Could not enforce law as not a state

Vigilantes- hypocritical because they took law into their own hands. Commited crimes. Hung people

Miner's courts- Only dealt with cliam jumping. Not very trained with other cases. Biased on race due to Manifest Destiny. 

Racism- Even law enforces racist. Believed in Manifest Destiny and God given rights not migrants from China or Mexico

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Brigham Young's importance (12)

Characteristics- Strong, logical, strict and respected

Journey-                                                                                                                           Positives- Manageable groups, planted crops, Winter Quarters, Safety circles and split roles and reposibilites.                                                                                                                         Negatives- Death from illness

Settlement-                                                                                                                        Positives- Exodus so religion, dug irrigation ditches, surveyed the land, distributed land based on need, Perpetual Immigration Fund.                                                                                          Negatives- Religious persectution still occured and Mountain Meadows Massacred blamed on Mormons

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How railroad affects them? (9)

Plains Indians

Buffalo- Unable to hunt, stopped buffalo moving and killed buffalo

Prevented Nomadic- Railroad through hunting ground, settlement fenced off areas

Settlement and Army- Increased settlement, conflict and supplies.

Beliefs, increased conflict and Manifest Destiny are other factors

Homesteaders-

Affluence- Trade and agriculture

New Technology- Overcome problems

Solved isolation- Mass migration and larger communities

Safer migration, increased conflict, law and order and to provide jobs are other factors

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Clash of culture

Land- (USA) Utilise it. Used for farming, building and railway. (Natives) equal to land. Dont cut it.

Housing- (USA) Sod houses, more permanent. (Natives) Tipi, nomadic so temporary

Gold- (USA) Gold=Wealth=Power, large mines so cut land. (Natives) against beliefs. Horses

Buffalo- (USA) Railway disruppted, hunt for sport. (Natives) use whole buffalo, dependent, nomadic

War- (USA) power, land, resources, money. (Natives) fight for horses,bravery and don't kill enemy

Family- (USA) women had important role, men superioir. (Natives) Polygamy and honour elders

Religion- (USA) Manifest Destiny (Natives) Animalisitc, tribal, circles, nomadic, three worlds

Law and Order- (USA) Sherriffs, Marshalls and Judges (Natives) Council of elders, chiefs.

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