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  • Grand alliance came apart. No common enemy
  • 3 meetings, 1during 2after war2,Teheran Conference 1943, stalin, USA attack Germany help USSR. Churchil, usa attack Balkans. Stalin, usa west, ussr east.
  • Yalta conference 1945, ussr help attack japan, Europe democracy, UN set up=peace.
  • Potsdam 1945, Germany, Nazis war criminals, reduce by quarter, divide French, britian USA and USSR. Reparations taken. Berlin divided, berlin in soviets quarter,
  • Berlin split meant USA had foot hole in Soviet quarter.
  • Churchil- rebuild Germany.
  • Stalin-germany pay reparations, cant start war,Europe= communist democracy.
  • Rooservelt- Europe, capitalist democracy. Ussr in Poland made one communist party.
  • USA thinks international trade good, no government involvement.
  • USSR thinks everyone work for one aim, state control
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  • Long telegram 1946, US ambassador, USSR destroy capitalism, military power, no peace.
  • Novikov telegram 1946, USSR ambassador, USA world domination, only they could defeat, usa preparing for war.
  • Nuclear arms race 1945-USA atomic bombs, Japanese’s cities.
  • 1949-USSR first AB test        
  • 1952-USA Hbomb
  • 1953-USSR Hbomb
  • Nuclear=no hot war
  • Europe=battle ground.
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  • Trueman- after war, Europe destroyed. No money, no jobs. Communism=everyone money,APPEALING. Some forced communism, some too weak government to fight, Greece+ Turkey= communism= middle east influence.
  • Trueman doctrine-1947 Trueman speech, choice, communism no freedom, contain communism, provide money+troops help free government avoid communism.
  • Marshall Plan-1947,13 billion euros rebuild, trade with USA, 16 western took, USSR took as attack.
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  • 1947-1949,sphere of influence spread, Poland+Hungary
  • Free elections agreed at Y+P, didn’t choose communism, fixed it, shut down opposition.
  • Cominform-1947, made leaders all communist, removed all competition, removed more marshall Aid. Two sides.
  • Comecon- Council for mutual economic assistance 1949 USSR Marshal plan, Built trade links comecon countries, prevented them signing to marshal plan, East Germany. 
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  • Berlin block aid. USSR= no rebuilding Germany, west= building Germany, money, jobs, food.East Germany= bad jobs, communist control, not much money. Moving to east loosing population and skilled workers. Britian and USA join. East grew food for west, blocked supplies.
  • Berlin airlift, west need supplies, West pull out of Berlin, weak, tonnes of supplies flown to Berlin. West seen as peaceful, West Germany officially formed sept 1949, NATO set up to counter military threat. East, aggressive and threatening, oct 1949 east Germany formed, 1955 formed Warsaw Pact to counter NATO.
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  • USSR couldn’t force west out, war, attacking, soviet more troops, defeat easily, Hbomb, not attck, USA hbomb, 20 more, USA more money, Built B52 bombers fly 6000 miles, hbomb drop on ussr but not other way.
  • Berlin wall, USSR demanded withdrawal, November 1958 berlin was east and west leave 6months, USA objected didn’t leave, didn’t want to start a war, conference to sort out, met four times, May 1959 Geneva- nothing agreed freindly, September 1959 eisenhower met krushchev USA- nothing agreed friendly, May 1960 eisenhower and krushchev Paris- aweful, US spy plane shot down over USSR Eisenhower no apology Khrushchev walked out, June 1961 Khrushchev and J.F. Kennedy Vienna- only happened cus of new president neither side back down Kennedy prepared nuclear war.
  • Krushchev backed down, couldn’t win nuclear war, west stayed, August 1961 berlin wall built, escapers were shot, Khrushchev avoided war, usa looked stong.
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  • Stalin died Khrushchev tried to relax the control, Hungry moved out of soviet, Tightened control, to stop others from leaving. Hungry suffered, food and industry shipped to Russia, opposition wiped out, Matyas Rakosi brutal, unpopular. Called destalinisation, Imre Nagy took over hungry.
  • Nagy= reforms, leave war saw, no communist government, democracy+ free, UN protection from USSR. Krushev refused Nagy, Nov 1956: Krushchev 200000 troops to Hungary. Thousonds killed, Nagy tried and executed.
  • USA supported Hungary words and money, couldn’t send troops-war, 1956 hbombs nuclear war risk, Hungry on own, soviet control tightened east Europe. 
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  • Before 1959 Cuba linked to USA, us owned businesses, Cuba socialist revolution 1959 USA didnt deal with new government, Cuba economic links with USSR, trading. US cuba deteriorated. USA no socialist in sphere of influence or ussr linked, CIA attempted assassination Cuba leader, Castro, no succsess, CIA conviced Kennedy US backed invasion solved problem.
  • Bay of pigs, 17 April 1961, CIA said look like Cuban revolt with Cuban exiles+disguised old US planes as Cuban, Castro weak control, Cubans hate Castro, Reality US planes recognised and phtotgraphed and published, world knew, Castro knew about it, 1400US troops, 20000 Castro troops, US surrendered, Cuband didn’t want Batista (old leader) corrupt. Ended cuba US relations, Castro announced communist, Cuba and USSR closer ties, military defence of Cuba.
  • USSR saw Cuba as solution of not being able to reach USA, USA had missiles in UK so USSR put missiles on Cuba, prevent USA from invading, Septenmber 1962 ships carried missiles and war heads October 1962 US plane photograph, US public learnt, panic.
  • Kennedy, Hawkes wanted to attack Doves wanted to avoid nuclear war, possibilities, ignore-USA misiles in uk and turkey. Deal- cuba for turkey missiles. Invade- remove castro. Nuclear attack- attack USSR before they attack USA. Destroy missile sites- air strikes no nuclear. Blockade Cuba- stop missiles and equipment. Warn Castro he put Cuba in danger hope he stops.
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  • Thirteen days period during Cuban Missile crisis, 1962, 16th October- Kennedy informed us found missiles, 20 october- no attack, blockade, 24th October- USSR says aggressive and ignore it, 25th October-USA & USSR prepare for immediate nuclear attack, 27th October Cuba ready for invasion Khrushchev offers removal of missiles if US do in Italy and Turkey, US spy plane shot down in Cuba. US hawks want to retaliate, Kennedy agrees to deal but does his side secretly. 28th October Khrushchev agrees USA never attack Cuba too.
  • Consequences, short- Cuba defence down, let down but soviet, USSR looked weak, no one knew about USA withdrawal, long- showed how easily nuclear war was, USA initiated start of détente-Hotline agreement link Moscow and Washington, Limited test Ban treaty August 1963 ban all nuclear weapons testing but underground, 1963 Kennedy speech ussr work common intrests, Mutually Assured Destruction MAD- avoid war, 1964 khrushchev forced from power.
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  • Relaxation lead to challenge soviet, Czechoslovakia economy and living standards declined, communist opposition crushed, unpopular. Alexander Dubcek- Jan 1968 became leader, friend of soviet leader Leonid Brezhnev, communist an warsaw supporter wanted to make better an easier to live,reforms resulted in ‘Prague Spring’ period of political freedom in April 1968 communist criticism resulted.
  • Dubceks reforms, censorship relaxation, more democracy other parties, soviet control reduced, Czech parliament control increased. Brezhnev response, not allow reforms, weakness could break-up Warsaw pact but wasn’t Dubceks intention, brez couldn’t stop refoms, August 1968 USSR sent tanks to Prague and Dubcek arrested. Consequences- Brez Doctrine-USSR right to invade eastern bloc threating security, USA condemned couldn’t stop, Western communist parties horrified declared independence, Yugoslavia and Romania backed off, USSR grip on east weakened.
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  • Détente French meaning relaxation, late 1960s, examples, outer space treaty 1967- no nuclear weapons in space, Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 1968- prevent nuclear weapon spread, countries with nuclear weapons don’t help without to get them, countries with none wouldn’t try and get them, countries with talk about disarmament. SALT I, Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty 1972- superpowers limit number of nuclear weapons, no production of short range missiles( strategic ballistic), no increase of intercontinental ballistic weapons(replace old ones), 2Anti-ballistic Missiles deployment areas.
  • 1975 Helsinki conference, 35 countries USSR+USA, security, cooperation(USA  buy oil,USSR buy wheat) , human rights(sharing scientific and educational knowledge, respect freedom of speech religion movment and info) , borders (east & west) discuss. All disputed peacefully resoled, through UN if need. No international affairs involvement.
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  • 1968 USSR tanks to Czech remove anticommunist groups, USA condemned didn’t attack. 1979 USSR sent troops to Afghanistan, communist governed, take control after assassinated president, USA strongly reacted.
  • Cater Doctrine January 1980- Jimmy Carter, threatened force if USSR tried take control of Persian Gulf, no trade, set up alliance with China and Israel back Mujahideen, provided Mujahideen with weapons and money secretly, broke diplomatic relations with USSR and didn’t sign SALT II, boycotted 1980 Olympic games in Moscow. USSR 1984 boycotted Los angles Olympic games. USA worried that USSR get control on middle east. Could lead to Iran influence, then block middle east oil exports, very important. Before war, USSR socialist afgan backed, USA secretly funding opposition, government asked USSR help.
  • SALT II negotiations since 1972, reduce stocks 2250 warheads per superpower, Imposed limits on new launch systems. 
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  • 1968 USSR tanks to Czech remove anticommunist groups, USA condemned didn’t attack. 1979 USSR sent troops to Afghanistan, communist governed, take control after assassinated president, USA strongly reacted.
  • Cater Doctrine January 1980- Jimmy Carter, threatened force if USSR tried take control of Persian Gulf, no trade, set up alliance with China and Israel back Mujahideen, provided Mujahideen with weapons and money secretly, broke diplomatic relations with USSR and didn’t sign SALT II, boycotted 1980 Olympic games in Moscow. USSR 1984 boycotted Los angles Olympic games. USA worried that USSR get control on middle east. Could lead to Iran influence, then block middle east oil exports, very important. Before war, USSR socialist afgan backed, USA secretly funding opposition, government asked USSR help.
  • SALT II negotiations since 1972, reduce stocks 2250 warheads per superpower, Imposed limits on new launch systems. 
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  • Second cold war, 1979-85, Ronald Reagan- president 1981, USA had mission from god, Strategic Defence Initiative (SDI) want to win, lanched SDI advantage in MAD against SALT I, SDI(star wars)- satellites in space destroy intercontinental missiles before reaching USA. Reagen didn’t want detante, ussr described as “Evil Empire.” Started arms race again, 1980s us tech developing fast, loads of money to new missiles.
  • USSR couldn’t keep up, economy poor, too much spent on weapons, living standards low, fighting afgan, no computing experts, SDI too advance for USSR. 
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  • 1985, Mikhail Gorbachev leader USSR, last, reform to make stronger. Knew economy falling, soviet unhappy and not trusting, Perestoika- resurectuing new way of doing things, Glasnost-openness freedom of speech, open and positive foreign relations, need to get out of afgan war, slow but allowed democratic relations, cover Chernobyl nuclear accident, no capitalism but strong socialism, didn’t plan the end of USSR.
  • Geneva November 1985- Gorbachev and Reagan meet, good relation, agreed more meetings. Reykjavik October 1986- cut number of nuclear weapons, USSR wanted SDI end Reagan said no.
  • INF treaty- intermediate-range Nuclear forces (nuclear weapons 500-5500km range) signed December 1987.
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  • Reforms spread, lots of eastern bloc wanted independence. Gorbachev removed Brezhnev doctrine, USSR had to reform trade with USA, troop and military too much cost.
  • Revolutions following P+G= Poland June 1989
  • Hungary October 1989
  • East Germany (fall of berlin wall) November 1989
  • Czech November 1989
  • Bulgaria December 1989
  • Romania December 1989
  • Reunification of Germany 1990
  • All peaceful but Romania. Warsaw pact ended 1991.
  • After hungary revolution people left east Germany through hungary, forced government to announce Berlin border cross (9november 1989). Wall fell after pushing through.
  • December 1991, USSR over Gorb resigned,cold war ended, Perestroika made economy worse, demanded independence 1990-91.
  •  August Coup 1991 gorb unpopular among soviet hardliners, group August 1991 tried to control and rescue USSR, Boris Yeltsin leader, Coup fell in few days Yeltsin looked strong.
  • Why USSR lost, Propaganda harder to sell communism when capitalism was better, Afghan War cost too much, Economy not as productive, Arms race 1960 crippled economy, Freedom east only happened because forced, 1970s-80s soviets were scared of computers freedom.
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