John Snow wrote a book about the link of Cholera and water. it helped other be aware of the cause of disease. 

William Farr mapped deaths to communicate which diseases were most hazardous.

Edwin Chadwick wrote a report on Public Health. This helped because it spread awareness of the poor and their living conditions. 

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John Snow: Proved cholera was through water.

William Farr: Set up a system that recorded routinely the deaths.  William Farr concluded and confirmed his reports in 1849 about cholera. His final judgement was the Environment contributed to the Cholera outbreak. 

Edward Jenner: He solved small pox. He took cowpox and infected somebody with it into a cut. Once they recovered he gave them a small dosage of small pox. Because the two diseases were similar, the body was immune and the person recovered quickly. He created the first idea of a vaccination. 

Edwin Chadwick: He wrote the first report on public health and made taxes. Poor and rich people had to pay to have medical offers, improved sewers and clean drinking water. 

Opposition: The rich did not want to pay for poor. there was no guarantee it would work. Local Councils did not like National Government interfering. Many also didn't believe dirty conditions caused disease.

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Religion had no real effect on Public Health. 

Many people still wanted to believe bad air was the cause of bad Public Health but this was not because of  religious beliefs.

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Cities had little/sanitation. no real purified drinking water. this resulted in cholera spreading through water.

The government passed the Public Health act but did not make it compulsory. 

Only 103 towns set up Local boards of health but many did not. The act was abolished after 6 years in 1854. 

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Industrial Revolution

More factories and trains were being introduced. Caused a lot of pollution. 

People were able to enter the sewers, in which spread disease. 

child labour in factories hindered physical growth and development of the child. this was because they were sat down for hours on end. 

Overcrowded population.

The streets were unpaved, dirty and had no sewers at this time. 

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The Great Stink:

1858 people would flush waste into the River Thames. One hot summer create the river to have a bad smell. 

People would drink from the river, spreading Cholera and water-borne diseases. 

it is a chance because without the hot summer the smell would have not been detected, meaning cholera would have continued to spread. 

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Telegraph lines connected US, India, Africa and Australia. means they could travel new information and medicines around the world. 

Inventions: Improved glass on microscopes and thermometers. invented steel which went on to create a needle. 

Use of technology helped build new sewage systems. Which overall improved Public Health. 

The use of science helped John Snow link cholera and water. 

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The Government passed the laws which lead to new sewage systems being placed. This meant no more disease would be spread through the sewers if kept clean. 

the government passed Chadwick's public health act in 1848. This lead to an overall improvement with imrproved sewers and providing clean water. 

1848 Public Health Act The Central Board of Health was created and although it was abolished 10 years later, the Act also encouraged local Boards of Health to be set up to appoint a Medical Officer, provide sewers, inspect lodging houses and check food which was offered for sale

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The war allowed surgeons to practice new techniques.

The surgeons would often compete and the result of this was many new medicines and techniques being discovered. 

Florence Nightingale: Set her own nursing school in the 1850's.

Henry Dunant: Made the Red Cross to help care for sick and wounded. 

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Most important factors

Individuals: because many of the individuals stated made discoveries that helped improve public health. for example John Snow stopped people being allowed to enter the sewers, preventing the spread of disease from sewers to people. 

The government was important because they helped pass laws and improve living conditions, which contributed to the increase of public health.

Communication was important because it was the only way to voice the happenings of the Cholera and without communication through the maps and books nobody would have improved their public health. 

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Least important factors

Least important: War because it helped new techniques and methods however made no real improvement to public health. 

Religion was also not important because at this time there wasn't much strictness around religious beliefs.  

Chance of the great stink was a little important but overall i deem it not to be. This is because individuals were already discovering the link of cholera and water, so soon after the great stink they would have found the infected water anyway. 

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Which factors helped improve Public Health in the


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