- Hispanics traditionally remained ghettoised; either in rural and urban areas. Little to do with federal government.
- Began to change following Black Civil Rights Movement.
- 1978 - 7.2 million Hispanics (Located mainly in South-West i.e. Arizona, California, Colorado, New Mexico, Texas).
- Hispanics rejected Mexican-American name for 'Chicanos'.
- 1970 - 85% in cities (mainly LA - 1 million).
- Hispanics still being under-represented in state and city legislature.
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- Asian Americans (Chinese and Japanese) sufferred racial prejudice and legal discrimination (especially during WW2.
- Also suffered severe hate campaigns during WW2.
- Remained isolated from political process.
- Most significant advances economically.
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- Population doubled 1945-1980: nearly 2 million.
- Biggest concentrations in Oklahoma, Arizona and California (west of the Mississippi).
- Previously large rural population - now majority live in cities.
- Urban Indians struggled to adapt to 'modern' society.
- Poverty, unemployment, poor housing and education even worse than Black Americans.
- High suicide rates - felt culture was despised by Whites.
- National Congress of American Indians (NCAI) first pan-Indian organisation (1944).
- Sued state and federal governments over discrimination in employment and education and for breaking long-term treaties (e.g. Passamaquodoy v Morton - 1972).
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- 'Red Power' coined in 1969, by Vine Deloria Jr.
- 1969 - 14 demonstrators offerred to sell Alcatraz Island for $24 (same as what the Dutch paid for New York in 1626).
- American Indian Movement (AIM) staged armed confrontation with federal officials at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
- AIM founded in ghetto in Minneapolis.
- Tried to get improvements in housing, education and employment in ghettoes and reservations.
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Improvements and Successes
- Johnson and Nixon supported economic and political self-determination for Indians.
- Johnson's War On Poverty helped Indians greatly.
- 1969 - Nixon appointed Louis R. Bruce (Mohawk-Sioux) as Commissioner for Indian Affairs.
- Nixon promised tribes greater autonomy.
- Tourism has economically helped Indians in last 25 years.
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- Issue of self-determination and self-government remains complex.
- Even when self-determination has been practised, later Supreme Court decisions have impinged them.
- Supreme Court declared that "the power to tax is an essential attribute of Indian Sovereignty" states (e.g. Oklahoma) have challenged it over state cigarette taxation.
- Whites have clashed with Indians over gambling, water an fishing rights - tension still exists.
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