To what extent was Henry's relationship with the church harmonious?

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INTRODUCTION

  • Henry took to the throne in 1153
  • Durning entire reign he ruled alongsiode three sperate church leaders: Theobald, Becket and Richard of Dover. 
  • LOA: Disputes were severe but this was not typical of the relationship 
  • The reign of Becket- one of most notable disputes with the church in History but this was an exception as the tragic murder was driven by a clash in personalities.
  • Relationship with Hubert and Richard were notably stable becuase...

CHURCH AND CROWN ARE DEPENDANT ON ONE ANOTHER FOR LEGITIMACY AND PROTECTION MORE THAN THEY WERE RIVALS FOR POWER

N.B - structure it woth conflicts first ( Becket ) then harmonious.

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SPARK OF CONFLICT (BECKET&HENRY)

WHEN THERE WERE CONFLICTS IT WAS EXTREME: most notably under Henry and Becket.

Conflict sparked by clash of priciples: 

  • Henry appointed Becket as Archbishop 1162 with the expectation that the realtionship would be harmonious as Becket followed the theocratic principle when Henry's trusted chancellor. 
  • Becket stood up for sacremtal pricniples- Church greater authority of the crown. 
  • Becket- stubborn Henry -Angry/power hungry
  • DIFFERING PRICNIPLES UNDERPINNED BY A CLASH IN PERSONALITY WAS A CATALYST FOR A PERIOD OF CONFLICT & RIVALRY
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EXAMPLES OF CONFLICT:

1163 COUNCIL OF WESTMINISTER- Henry proposes plan for reform of the judicial system.7

  • Why?: Chruch courts introduced by William I were problematic-1/6 of population were clergymen.
  • Evidence of conflict? - Bekcet opposed plans on vehemet terms.

JAN 1164: CONSTITUATIONS OF CLARENDON: -

  • Henry issues written document addressing the problems raised at westminister alongside wider church powers such as appeals to rome,excommunication and advowson. 
  • Evidence of conflict?- Becket rejected 10/16 clauses inc. the problem of criminous church (most serious)

OCT 1164 : NORTHAMPTON: Henry accuses Becket of embezzling funds, WILLIAM FITZSTEPHEN SUGGESTS HENRY DID THIS AS AN 'AFFRONT' TO THE CONFLICTS AT CLARENDON.Becket exiled. 

MONTRAIL 1169: Negotiations between Henry,Becket and Louis VII collapsed as even though Becket submitted it was on the grounds of 'SAVING MY ORDER'.

BECKETS RETURN TO ENGLAND 1170: Becket excommunicated all Bishops that sided with Henry- opposed all settlments at Fretval and Banks of the Loire. - It was clear relations would never be able to ease between the two enemies- murder 29th december 1170. 

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LINK

Henry-Bekets realtionship was NOT harmonious. However, this was becuase of unusual circumstances:

  • Henry and Becket driven by a clash in personality: 
  • Henry was at the height of his strength at the time Becket was appoited,he had the confidence to exploite the church's authority. 
  • Henry was a very Angry character 'frothed at the mouth' which did not compliment well with Beckets stubborn attitude. 

IN MOST CIRCUMSTANCES BECUASE THE CHURCH AND CROWN WERE MUTAULLY DEPENDANT UPON ONE ANOTHER DISPUTES DID NOT HAPPEN/DEVELOP OFTEN. 

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HARMONIOUS (HENRY AND THEOBALD)

HARMONIOUS REALTIONS AS HENRY FULLER RESPECTED THEOBALD

  • Invasion of Henry of Anjou 1153 in persuit of claiming the throne.
  • Stephen did not try and prevent this, it was THEOBALD that was instrumental in securing Henry II's position on the throne- TREATY OF WINCHESTER 

Therefore- Henry was indebted to Theobald and had to treat him as an elderstatesman.

OTHER AREAS FOR ATTENTION:

Henry also had more important areas of attention at this early stage in reign- Establishing royal authority over Barons,restroing mechanisims of government. 

MUTUAL DEPENDANCY:  Theobald respected the need for strong kingship from his experience of civil war.

THIS WAS A PERIOD OF STABLILZATION, HENRY AND THEOBALD WORKED TOGETHER AS AT THIS TIME THEIR NEED FOR EACH OTHER WAS GREATER THAN RIVALRY. 

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HARMONIOUS (HENRY&RICHARD)

PERIOD OF HARMONY AS RICHARD AND HENRY COLLABORATED WELL.

  • 1174 Richard of Dover consecrated by POPE ALEX III

Richard was weak: POOLE: Richard was 'feeble and inneffective' - open to interpretation.

Concerned by Inner church not wider:  the period of peace can alternativly viewed that Richard was simply less dogmatic on the rights of clergy and more concerned with inner church issues.COUNCIL OF WESTMINISTER DEALT WITH CLERICAL MARRIAGE,ORDAINED CLERGY, DRESS OF CLERGY AND SIMONY.- Did not effect Henry's authority so stable relation

Servant of Government:  Organised the marriage of Joan (Henry's daughter) to marry William of sicily 1176- Worked to aid Henry

Good time:  Memories of church conflicts between Henry and Becket were still fresh- more likely to compromise

THS WAS A PERIOD HARMONY AS RICHARD RESPECTED THE POWERS OF GOVERNMENT AND CONTRIBUTED TO AIDING THE KING HIMSELF, DID NOT INSLUT HENRY'S AUTHORITY OIF WIDER CHURH AS HE WAS CONCERNED WITH INNER, IT WAS ALSO A TIME IN NEED OF COOPERATION NOT CONFLICT.

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CONCLUSION

  • Crisis between Henry and Becket was undoubly a period of conflict/rivalry
  • However, this charatceristic is not viable for Henry's realtionship with the church throughout all his reign.
  • Underlying church tensions were not brought to the forefront during collaboration with Theobald or Richard was there was more mutual benefits for the church and crown to work harmonious durning their time in rule. 
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