Unit 1- Context of the Wars of the Roses
Think... How it affects court politics. - Factions & animosity
White = York
Red = Lancaster
All Edwards III's descendents
Henry VII wins over Rich II (the bad uncle) at the battle of Bosworth (1485)
Henry VII married Elizabeth York= Tudor Rose- white and red
Unit 1- Henry VII compared to Henry VIII
- Diplomatic ---> Catherine of Aragon & Arthur arrangement
- Good at Finance ---> Harsh on nobility as he was wary of them
---> pension with France
-Influenced by Henry V (war hero)
-married to Catherine of Aragon
- Personnel- 'boring' father's councillers (Wolsey emerged)
- He didn't have the resources to be the warrior King he wanted to be
-Ruthless & Aggressive
- Not interested in admin
Unit 1- Dates you need to know
1485- Battle of Bosworth
1502- Arthur Dies
1503- Julius II (pope) gives the OK to Henry and Catherine of Aragon's marriage.
1509- HVII dies
1510- HVIII King
1512- Wolsey & War with France
Unit 2- Historian's views on...
State of Church of England on the eve of the Reformation
-Corrupt and unpopular= Traditionalist view
-Realitively good health= Revisionist view
Motives for religious change
-Reform from above= Traditionalist view
-Reform from below= Revisionist view
Pace of Change
-Little effect to everyday life until Elizabeth I= Traditionalist View
- Impact by Edward VI (quickly)= Revisionist View
Unit 2- The Catholic Church and peoples lives
1) Donations: very rich, wills (legacy), pray for their souls
2)Mass: In Latin, Sunday, Transubstantion (bread and wine) Participation
3)7 Sacraments: Marriage, Ordination, Baptism, Penance etc...
4)Saints: Miracles/ cults, days
5) Community: Focal point, monastries important
Unit 2- Abuses/ Disatification
Clerical: Nepotism, Pluralism, Sexual misconduct, Simony, Non residence & lack of education
REMEMBER: Only some Churches/ Monastries
Benefit of the clergy: Basically getting away with crimes by not going to a secular court.
Unit 2- Lutheranism
Reform in Germany by Martin Luther.
Criticising indulgences and wanting religious/spiritual equality.
Impact In England:
Henry never liked it- though Cromwell secretly did.
Royal Supremacy was tempting though for Henry
Universities (cambridge) who were more radical were influenced.
Unit 2- Opposition to Catholism before Reformation
ERASMUS- laid foundations for Luther
Change in intellectual and moral standards of the clergy not a change in traditions.
Orginal Scripture had been mistranslated.
Wanted an English Bible
Challenged papal authority and doctrine of catholic church
Unit 3- Wolsey's rise to power
-Gained power through the church
-Had a degree by the age of 15
-Brilliant administrator ( Henry found it boring)
- 1509 Royal Almoner (distribute to charity)
-He was initally meant to convince the young King to listen to the councillers- oppurtunist
-1512-13 he organised War on France so he gained the King honour
Maintained power 1515-29
-Relationship with Henry
Luck Vs Skill
- Right man at the right time, Wasn't too old
-Administration, Ruthless, bribery and knew how to play people
Unit 3- Wolsey and Henry
Yes- Hampton court
- John Skelton says Yes
- Vergil says Wolsey gives King gifts to get what he wants
- Wolsey picked his fights
- Henry knew exactly what Wolsey was doing
- Wolsey was just a servant
-Easily disposed of
Wolsey was Loyal and Efficent
Unit 3- Wolsey's wealth and ruthlessness
He had a 'low birth' important as it factors in his fall.
Same amount of servants as the King.
Largest disposable income.
Sometimes it's exaggerated
Polydore Vergil- Imprisioned
Execution of Buckingham 1521- White Rose
Unit 3- Sources on Wolsey
Cavendish- 1522 met Wolsey
- A servant of Wolsey
- potential man crush.
Vergil - Anglica Historia
- Wolsey imprisioned him so had a personal feud
- Italian Humanist
Hall - Contemporary
- No personal hate
- thought Wolsey was corrupt
Skelton - Echo's nobels hate as he wanted to be sponsered.
Unit 3- Wolsey's Domestic Policies (part 1)
Overall: Maintained law and order to the church and crown
Tended to focus on foreign affairs as Henry was only interested in that
Justice: Civil law over common law = fairer
Not many reforms
Anyone (no matter income) could bring a case to court
Went from 12-120 cases per year
Sorted out his own personal grudges (Paulet was put in stocks for previously embarrassing wolsey)
Court of star chamber and Chancery- King's subjetcs to justice
Enclosure: 1517 he started work, the disputes were on nobles illegally enclosing land to rear sheep.
Despite efforts it still happened.
Unpopular with nobels.
Unit 3- Domestic Policies (part 2)
Finance: Taxation reflected wealth
Parliament weren't happy
Rejected fixed rates
Amicable Grant 1525:
-The French army annihilated at Pavia so Henry wanted to invade to claim back France but he didn't have the resources
- Non-parliamentry tax
-Targeted Clergy and Laity
- There were rebellions (though not nobles)
-Abandoned in May so French alliance= beginning of the end for Wolsey
Unit 3- How did Wolsey Monopolise Political Power?
-Head of legal system
- Parliament only met twice- 'source of trouble' Wolsey- deliberately sidelined them
- Well informed about factions
-Sent young ambitious nobles away to do mundane jobs (so they can't influence Henry)
Unit 3: Wolsey and Church reform
Benifit of the Clergy
1512- act against it
Henry Standish complained- (1515 raised again) not renewed but Wolsey had to promise that Royal authority swayed on eccelestical power (EMBARASSING)
His position gave him wealth- which made him open to criticism
1515 parliamentary session dominated by it
Richard H oppossed church about high burial fees for his son- arrested and found hung in his cell.
Pluralism, Nepotism, Absenteeism
Wolsey had a son, never visited his sees. He held a council to stop corruption- never happened.
Abuses common of senior churchmen
Unit 3: Wolsey and Church reform
Pope or King?
Heavily taxed clergy
No influence on great matter
Propsals of reform
Initiated legatine visitations
Unit 3: Why did Wolsey fall from power?
Wolsey was unpopular royal favourite. Implies Henry was weak and easily manipulated. Nobility took their revenge when Henry lost faith in Wolsey due to divorce crisis. Suggests long-term noble conspiracy that manifested 1528-29.
Plays down unpopularity, Wolsey didn't mean to antagonise nobility he was too skilled for that. Short term opportunist faction led by Dukes of Norfolk and Suffolk who played on H's disapointment on Great Matter.
Anne Boleyn and Noble conspiracy- debate.
Why did Henry lose faith in Wolsey?
1) H's government increasingly unpop, alliance with france=bad= poor trade= weakened H's position for great matter
2) Failure to sort divorce- (Henry only wanted Leviticus arguement) Charles V had power over pope.