Henry VII and other countries of Europe

His main objectives were to secure his throne, promote prosperity in England, maintain prestige while keeping the costs down.

Foreign Affairs

- Brittany, Henry owed Duke Francis II of Brittany a debt of gratitude for providing shelter during his exile from 1471 to 1484. A commercial treaty was signed between England and Brittany in july 1486.

- Scotland, Henry VII feared the Scots might capitalise on his accession and invade. He raised a loan from the City of London but this proved both unpopular and unecessary. King James III was pleased to end years of Yorkist-Scottish hostility. A three year truce was signed between England and Scotland in July 1486.

- Ireland, Eastern Irleand beyond the Pale was under the control of Gerald Fitzgerald, Earl of Kildare. He, like Burgundy and the Holy Roman Empire, had prospered under the Yorkists and was a source of rebellion against Tudor. He was not able to make any pre-emptive agreement with Kildare.

- France was the dominant power in Europe so was the most challenging foreign affair to manage. His relationship with France was stained by his debt to Brittany(The Breton Crisis 1487-92), because France intended to annexe Brittany. After asking for support from Burgundy and Spain that was answered at first however they were distracted by other wars, therefore Henry was left alone in 1488. In 1489, Henry signed the Treaty of Redonpromising to assist Brittany in defying French ambitions. However he made it clear his intention was to defend Brittany

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Foreign Affairs

not assert England's claim to the throne. Henry showed diplomatic skill and gave himself time for thorough preparations by avoiding a rush into armed conflict with France. The French king Charles married Anne of Brittay and ploughed on with the absorption of Brittany. The French received Perkin Warbeck at court and pouring more troops into Brittany. Henry launched a short campaign with 12,000 men. The French wanted a war in the Italian penisular so agreed to the Treaty of Etaples.

- Burgundy and england under the Yorkist kings, had good relations with Burgundy because they had achieved independence from France so were naturally anti-French; England's major exports, wool and woolen cloth, went through Burgundian markets so both countries' commercial prosperity depended on good relations. Under the Tudor kings relations were difficult, Margaret of Burgundy and Maximilian constantly conspired against Henry. In the same year (1489) as the Treaty of Redon and the Treaty of Medina del Campo, the treaty of Dordrecht. Maximilian did not send troops, he made peace wth Charles VIII.

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Foreign Affairs

In 1493, Anglo-burgundian relations deteriorated further when Philip ignored Henry's letters , and put an embargo on English trade with Burgundy that lasted until 1496 (Intercursus Magnus). Arose another crisis at the death of Isabella of Castille in 1504. In 1506 the intercursus Malus or treaty of Windsor was signed. However Henry's luck ran out when Philip died unexpectedly, Maximilian assumed regency of Burgundy and the treaty was soon abandonned, like the marriage between prince Henry and Margaret of Savoy. In 1508, the Treaty of Cambrai brought the kings of France, Spain and Burgundy together against Venice. We can consider that the distraction of the Italian Wars benefited Henry with time and respite.

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