Henry II, 1174-1189

The problems and challenges faced by Henry II during 1174-1189.

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Philip II Augustus

-15 when his father, Louis VII died in 1180

-By 1183 he had embarked on the policy that was to destroy Henry II in 1188-89

-1190's his territorial gains got him his name 'Philip Augustus'

-By the end of his reign in 1223 he was known as the most successful king in French history

-He used the Angevins against eachother- Henry's sons against Henry, then John against Richard, then Aurther against John.

-Philip then turned to his own son Louis, married to Henry II's grand-daughter, Blanche of Castile, and sent him to invade John in 1216.

-1216 Philip had established himself as master of the greater kingdom of France

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Henry II and Richard I

-1175 Henry had left the majority of Aquitaine's goverment to Richard

-Richard treated the local people poorly- carried off daughters and passing them on to friends

-1183 Young Henry was egged on by Geoffrey of Brittany to join rebellion led by Viscount of Limoges and Geoffrey of Lusignan. The plan was to unseat Richard at Aquitaine so Young Hnery could rule.

-Philip II saw his chance and along with Raymond V of Toulouse and Duke of Burgundy, he sent troops to help Young Henry.

-Early summer 1183 Henry II and Richard looked to be in trouble but luckily for them Young Henry fell ill in June and died.

-Richard was now heir and refused to agree with his father and give John Aquitaine in return for his homage.

-Richard refused as he had spent 8 years building his power and ties in Aquitaine

-Henry II would find it hard to break the ties Richard had made in Aquitaine

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Henry II and Richard I (2)

-1175 Henry also had to deal with welsh princes revolt, 1175 king of scots demanding his castles back and in 1175 King Philip was now demanding Young Henry's widow's marriage portion , the Norman Vexin, was returned to him.

-1185 Henry was forced to ask Richard to surrender Aquitaine to his mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine instead

-1186 Henry supplied Richard with resources to attack Raymond of Toulouse- probobly to reassert authority over the Quercy.

-1186 Geoffrey and Philip were becoming close until Geoffrey died in August 1186

-June 1187 Henry was alarmed to hear Richard and Philip were 'sharing a bed and table' which showed they were close allies and trusted eachother. This defied Henry- even after 1186 reconciliatian signalled by the Toulouse campaign.

-Alledged affair between Henry and Alice, who Richard was bethrothed to in 1169.

-1176 Louis VII was concered Alice and Richard were not yet married.

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Henry II and Richard I (3)

-Alledgedly Henry sent a letter to Philip in 1187 saying Alice should marry John instead. Philip sent this to Richard who now hated Henry and thought he was being disinherited.

-1183 Henry promised to grant Norman Vexin to whoever of his sons married Alice

-Failure of John's Ireland expedition in 1185 fuelled rumours.

-Philip raised question of Alice's marriage in 1183, 1186, 1188, and 1189. 

-1191 Richard told Philip Alice had a son by Henry and the marriage was cancelled.

-Richard had found another fiancée, by around 1188 but kept it from Philip his new ally until about 1190.

-1187 Henry and Richard was formally reconcilled.

-Autumn 1187 Richard took the cross without consulting his father

-Henry and Rchard reconcilled again publically.

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Henry II and Richard I (4)

-1188 Richard faced agression from Raymond V of Toulouse and Lusignan and Count of Angouleme rebellion simultaneously- apparently Henry had funded the opposition.

-Richard put down the rebellions and carried war against Count Raymond right up to the gates of Toulouse- then he went North to help his father defend their land against Philip.

-Richard was too late to stop Philip adding the important Berry stronghold of Chataeuroux to his gains of Issoudun and Gracay- which he took in 1187.

-November 1188 at Bonmoulins Henry and Richard met to make peace and Henry recognized Richard as his heir publically.

-At Bonmoulins Richard then did homage to Philip for all the lands his father held off the King of France. The king of France's war against Henry was now back on.

-Henry found no support in Aquitaine, the Bretons rose against him as he limitted their independence.

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Henry II and Richard I (5)

-March 1189 Henry became ill but obtained a truce- until he rejected the terms offered at a Whitsun peace conference. 

-When he rejected terms at Whitsun peace conference in 1189 Richard and Philip invaded Maine and Touraine.

-June 1189 Henry's birthplace, Le Mans, surrendered.

-On 3rd July 1189 Tours fell- which was the key to the Angevin dominions in France. The next day, 4th July 1189, Henry met Philip and Richard and he agreed to pay Philip 20,000 marks and promised all his subjects across the empire would swear an oath of allegiance to Richard as heir.

-6th July 1189 Henry died in misery as John joined the winning side of Richard and Philip. According to contemporary moralists his misery was his price for murdering Becket.

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