Henry VIII & Foreign Policy

  • Created by: NHow02
  • Created on: 12-04-19 18:24

1. Henry's Failures (1509-29)

Successes:

- The Battle of the Spurs in 1513 (Theroanna & Tournai were effective bargaining tools + secures the French Pension by 1514)

- Battle of Flodden Field in 1513 (Scottish forced stopped by the Earl of Surrey + many of the Scottish nobility + James IV killed, neutralising the threat until 1540's)

Failures:

- Theruoanne & Tournai were only soft targets, unlike Boulogne + by 1514, war cost nearly £1-2 million (Henry unable to exploit Scotland's weakness after the Battle of Flodden in 1513)

- Marriage alliance between Louis XII + Mary failed after Louis' death in 1515 (Mary was subsequenty lost as a tool for alliances after she secretly married Suffolk)

- Henry was obsessed with presenting himself as a 'warrior king' by winning 'glory' through war (he spent £1,400,000 fighting wars between 1521-5)

- Henry was temperamental (Henry lost interest in the war in 1523 and instead occupied himself with hunting and sport)

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2. Wolsey' Failures

Successes:

- After the first invasion in 1512, Wolsey showed outstanding administrative skills by assembling + equipping 30,000 troops across the Channel to Calais...

- Treaty of London in 1518 (It avoided diplomatic isolation from European powers as it allied 20 countries with England at the centre)

- Field of the Cloth of Gold (presented Henry in a glorious light)

Failures:

- he lost recognision as a peacemaker during the Hapsburg-Valois conflict (both sides played for time + alienated Charles V by opening secret talks with France)

- interference of the conservative faction (struggled to build relations with France in 1525 as many Englishmen were anti-French - for example Richard Fox)

- Amicable Grant (10,000 people rioted Lavenham in May) & Trade Embargo in 1528 (caused trouble across South West, South East and East Anglia)

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2. Other Countries

Charles V:

- instead of giving Henry the French throne he reinstalls Francis I to the throne

- England renews war with France in 1522 (supported by Charles V after the realistic Treaty of Bruges of 1521 - however, it became apparent that Charles V was more interested in fighting in Northern Italy)

- In 1523, Henry plans an unrealistic attack on Paris encouraged by Charles V (both Duke of Bourbon & Suffolk plan to attack but are  subsequently let down by Imperial forces)

Annulment:

- Sacking of Rome in 1527 (Pope Clement VII became prisoner of Charles V, meaning there was less chance of gaining a marriage annulment)

Isolation:

- 2nd Treaty of Cambrai in 1529 (alliance than settled the conflict between France, the Empire and the Pope)

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