Henry VIII

Domestic Policies

CHURCH - 1512, restricted benefit of clergy ; 1515, session the principle once more raised. Wolsey had to swear to Henry personally that royal authority more power over ecclesiastical power. Wolsey had desperate need for money to fund Henry's foreign policy  - why parliament met, 1523. Wolsey initiated visitations of monastic houses. 

Successes & Failures

Wolsey's exploitations of ecclesiastical positions brought him wealth & meant he could establish his own probate courts

He got criticism from contemporary satirists

Some believed Wolsey only interested in exploiting Church for own financial gain

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Domestic Policies

POLITICS/NOBILITY - Wolsey most prominant churchman. Parliament only met twice during Wolsey, percieved he didn't trust its members. Role of parliament in 16th century was to pass laws and grant tax. Henry had nobles of same age surroundiing him. Wolsey's reform of gov. was to undermine potential political opponents. 

Successes & Failures

1526 - Wolsey used eltham ordinances to increase his control & exert himself

Wolsey believed parliament to be trouble with limited power

He expanded his energies in bringing about specific aspects of gov. that satisified him or worked to Henry's advantage

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Domestic Policies

FINANCE - Wolsey introduced more flexible and realistic subsidy to replace fifteenth and tenths. Rejected fixed rate. Wolsey favoured this subsidy as raised more money & more progressive. 

Successes & Failures

Between 1513&1516, raised £170,000 and fifteenth and tenths made £90,000

1523, Wolsey demanded money on top of loans amounting to £260,000 - Wolsey forced to settle for less. Caused resentment amongst ruling classes - increasingly late payments 1523-25.

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Domestic Policies

JUSTICE - Wolsey's appointment as Lord Chancellor 1515, he was active in court of Chancery and court of Star Chamber. Attempted to bring greater justice to system. Wolsey's centre of legal activities in Star Chamber. Promoted civil law over common law in court of Star Chamber. 

Successes & Failures

Anyone could bring their case infront of Star Chmaber regardless of wealth or status

Star Chamber dealt with 120 cases p/ year - 12 with Henry VII

Times when Wolsey used courts to further own position & carry out personal attacks to enemies

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Domestic Policies

ENCLOSURE - 1517, Wolsey started national enquiry to find out extent & effects of enclosure. Most common in Midlands. Legal cases drawn up against those who'd illegally enclosed - 264 prosecuted, 222 at court, 188 guilty. Though enclosing responsible for rural depopulation & poverty. 

Successes & Failures

All policy really did was make land owning class hate Wolsey

Brought ruling classes back to earth and popular with lower classes

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Structure of Henry's Gov.

(BOTH HAD PRIVY COUNCIL AS TOP ADVISORS, HENRY VIII STRUCTURE SMALLER , PERSONAL AND SIMPLISTIC, ONLY CALLED PARLIAMENT 9 TIMES)

THE COURT ~ PATRONAGE - 

  • 1547, 200 posts at court that were worth a gentlemen having; as well as those in household - King decided who got these
  • Mechanics of faction & patronage often linked; e.g. Sir Egerton & Ridley show. Egerton elevated by patronage and humbled by faction. He attended HenryVIII coronation & impressed King in joust, made knight in 1513 and was in favour of king. By 1525 he held 15 crown offices, 3 valuable leases and annuities. Made a great deal of money. 
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Structure of Henry's Gov.

PRIVY COUNCIL ~ FACTION

  • faction - a group of people who sought to advance shared interests. 
  • postitive interests = gaining/keeping priviledges, grants or jobs
  • negative interests = denying such things to rivals
  • longest standing faction = Aragonese faction who supported rights & position of humiliated Catherine of Aragon

PARLIAMENT - 

  • Henry VIII liked to have overview of gov. but happy to let others do work for him 
  • a major overhaul of relations between Crown and parliament took place during his reign. Primary reason to call parliament was to secure revenue.
  • Wolsey came to Henry's rescue and provided effective management of gov. that was recquired
  • conciliar approach to gov. adopted at start of reign and lasted 1509-1514. In the end, Wolsey became dominant political figure and gave King exactly what he wanted.
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Structure of Henry's Gov.

THE PRIVY CHAMBER ~

  • Before 1519, lay outisde Wolsey's immediate control. Privy Chamber's role extended in early years of reign when King's 'minions' became gentlemen of Privy Chamber. 
  • Minions distrusted Wolsey as he tried to neutralise their influence & 1519 he secured removal of minions and replaced them with his own supporters. 
  • Most minions managed to regain their position, thus retaining some influence and prestige - one part of gov. oitside Wolsey's immediate control.

DRY STAMP -

  • In last years of reign, members of PC allowed to use 'dry stamp' on official documents. 
  • This was forged King's signature that only given to 3 men at a time. Each document stamped had to be listed in a book, Henry reviewed monthly.
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Conc. of Wolsey

  • One of King's most trusted men; Lord Chancellor 1515
  • One of Wolsey's biggest successes was organising meeting between Henry & Frances I of France to strengthen their relationship
  • Wolsey made big changes to how taxes collected - poor didn't pay as much as rich
  • Created court of Star Chamber to dispense cheap and impartial justice. 
  • Introduced Act of Resumption 1515, increase rev from crown lands and introduced subsidy. 'Amicable Grant' fund Henry's expeidition to France. Balance sheet raised money.
  • Through Eltham Ordinances, tried to reform royal household to ensure political supremacy, he dissolved 30 religous houses to build colleges centralising his control over church
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Conciliar Government

  • Henry's new Lord Chancellor was Thomas More, but he couldn't bring himself to support King's case:
  • Drift in policy - understandeable due to Henry's want of an annulment through Rome
  • On other hand, increasinginly attratced by proposition of internal solution to increase own powers over Church at same time. Throughout 1529-32, Henry still applied pressure to Rome.
  • Wolsey's fate depended on securing annulment, after 2 years of diplomacy (1527-29) Pope sent an envoy; Cardinal Campeggio, to hear case along with Wolsey. Hearing opened London 30 June 1529. Sealing Wolsey's fate: he'd failed to give annulment.
  • Conciliar gov. opened Nov. 1529, legislation it passed was anti-clerical in nature. The Probate, Pluralties and Mortuaries Act tapped into anti-clerical sentiment in Eng & put pressure on Rome. 
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Conciliar Government

RADICAL VS CONSERVATIVES

  • key factional battle at court during journey to divorce. Radicals included Foxe and Cranmer and 1531 Cromwell. Supported Anne Boleyn and advocated Supremacy - entailed a break with Rome
  • conservatives mainly traditional minded bishops such as Fisher, Tunstall & Standish - supported Catherine of Aragon. 
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Conciliar Government

Henry's Views on Great Matter by 1530

  • 1530, henry collected opinions of finest uni's on Great Matter. 7 returned favourable verdicts for Henry's case, reiterating his marriage contravined divine law. Most uni's had been bribed. More reported findings to parliament.
  • Henry considered more radical option to solving Great Matter. 
  • henry intriguied by Royal Supremacy  as he could extend his power over Church to prenounce divorce
  • pressure on Church was exerted:
  • Feb 1531, Chruch was forced to pay subsidy for their endorsements of Wolseys papal posts - had to pay £118,000
  • 1531, henry had to be called supreme head of church, clergy conservatives ourtraged
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Conciliar Government

Importance of Thomas Cromwell in introducing Royal Supremacy

  • 1532, structure of Church took a change as break with Rome hit stature book
  • 1532, Cromwell introduced petition against Church courts into commons. Petition = 'Commons Supplication Against Ordinaries', convinced commons this was nothing to do with King's gov.
  • 15 May 1532, submission of clergy drawn up in which legislative independence of church surrendered to crown; new canon laws had to be approved by King, any laws undermining royal supremacy gotten rid of, convocation only met with permission of King
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Cromwell's Domestic Policies

  • Law And Order - 1540, Act abolished sanctuary ( use of religous buildings to sheild criminals)
  • Finance - 1536, court of Augmentations est. to deal with income from dissolution of monasteries, receivers in regions dealt with dissolved estates and reported to a central staff; crown income increased from £150,000 to £300,000
  • Administration - business of gov. became less centred on household and more idnependent and bureaucratic
  • The Privy Council - 70 people served as privy councillors but by 1536 smaller group of 20 seemed to conduct daily workings of gov; debatable whether importance of Privy Council increased under Cromwell
  • Wales and the North - in Act of Union 1536, Wales became incorporated into Eng legal and administrative system; Act of 1543 divided Wales in 3 shires with a JP appointed by King, Eng common law was to be law of land; authority of Council of North increased after Pilgrimage of Grace; King's authority felt more directly and rapidly as a result.
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Revolution in Henry's Gov.

REFORM OF GOVERNMENT

Royal Council

A more professional Privy Council emerged - contained fewer people (20), mainly composed of lawyers & bureaucrats rather than notables from ruling class ~ rev

Unsure whether Privy Council appeared in 1530's or 40's after Cromwell's fall, doubtful whether change was planned or happened due to reaction to events. ~ not rev

Kings Advisors

Professional administrators rather than untrained nobility needed to maintain system. Wolsey & Cromwell represented new breed of gov. officials ~ not rev

Unlike nobility, these men depended on King for promotions and titles, formed a loyal band of servants ~rev

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Revolution in Henry's Gov.

Reform of Gov

Financial Management 

Privy Chamber gave monarchs significant control over day-to-day decisions. Cromwell created new financial institutions alongside PC to manage new rev. generated by break from Rome. Departments created:

Court of Augmentations = controlled land & finances under Catholic Church

Court of General Surveyors = handled some of ex-monastic land, joined with Augmentations

Court of First Fruit and Tenths = collected money previously sent to Rome

Court of Wards = King had ancient frugal right to collect money from estate of a minor, under 21 who'd inherited

Revolutionary ^ 

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Revolution in Henry's Gov.

POWER OF CROWN

Revolutionary:

  • Act in Restraint of Appeals 1533, Cromwell wrote Eng was an empire & everyone owed King total obedience. Purpose of this meant that men couldn't appeal to Rome to give them judgments in religous cases as King was supreme in his own lands. 
  • 1536 Act of Union with Wales reorganised local gov. At same time, Act against Liberties & Franchises removed & restricted special powers exercised by regional noblesin more remote parts of Kingdom. Cromwell's aim was to provide consistent application of law.

Not revolutionary:

  • King was subject to Pope's views in matters of religous doctrine and supposed to seek Pope's permission. Wales no longer independent, but neither was it ever formally part Eng system of gov. Royal authoritiy spread unevenly throughout country. 
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Revolution in Henry's Gov.

Role and Importance of Parliament

Revolutionary:

  • Staue law remained in being for 7 years and passed a quanitity and range of law's unseen before that point in parliamentary history.
  • Parliament developed its procedures and gave MP's level of experience that was rare.
  • After dissolution of monasteries, abbots dissappeared and no. of bishops increased slightly with foundation of four new cathedrals. 

Not revolutionary:

  • Statue law had long been recognised as highest form of law in Eng, king still able to make law by proclomation on many issues. 
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Foreign Policy 1509-1514

1510 - Renewal of Treaty of Etaple

  • Henry's councillors sought a continuation of peace & negotiated renewal of Treaty. Henry didn't want this renewal.

1512 - First Invasion of France

  • To win over Great Council Henry could portray war as papal one in defence of liberties of Church. 
  • Parliament granted money to wage war April 1512 and force of 10,000 troops under command of Marquis of Dorset dispatched to Bayonne. Plan was for Eng to gain control of Aquitaine through joint Anglo-Spanish invasion. 
  • Henry let down by Ferdinand who only wanted to use Eng troops as a diversion so he could capture Navarre. 
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Foreign Policy 1509-1514

1513 - Battle of Spurs

  • Failure of invasion made henry more determined to attain glory in France 
  • Henry personally led army of 30,000 across chanel into Calais June 1513
  • He won battle of spurs but also captured The'rouanne and Tournai

1513 - Battle of Flodden

  • James VI, Scotland, took advantage of Henry's absence in France to launch invasion of Eng.
  • Sep 1513, 2 armies confronted each other at Flodden Edge, Surrey was outnumbered and had weaker position. 
  • However, Surrey won momentous victory and removed Scottish threat
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Conc. Foreign Policy 1509-1514

  • Henry stomped his mark on European affairs and announced his presence to other powers
  • Laid claim to inherited title and eng victories on French soil had brought prestige and standing to reign
  • Attention drawn to Wolsey, organised and completed logistics of raiding this army and sending it across channel
  • Henry deceived and deserted by Ferdinand 1512
  • Henry spent £960,000 in 1511-12, his ordinary income was £110,000 per annum, Henry stratching resources
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Foreign Policy 1514-1516

1514 - Marriage of Louis XII, France & Princess Mary

  • Ceremony took place October 1514, considerable difference of ages between the two and Louis XII died 1515. 
  • Mary remarried Duke of Suffolk, he denied her brother, Henry, to use her for diplomatic purposes , King felt dishonoured before reconciled. 
  • marriage created French/Eng alliance

1515 - Death of Louis XII

  • Death of Louis XII left French throne in hands of Frances I, Henry saw him as personal & political rival
  • Henry lost alliance with France

1516 - Death of Ferdinand of Aragon

  • Ferdinand died and his grandson, Charles V sought alliance with France
  • Following year, Spain agreed Cambrai with French, left Eng dangerously isolated
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Foreign Policy 1516-1518

1516 - Treaty of Noyon

  • Anglo-French peace began to evaporate as Frances stirred up unrest by sending Albany to overthrow Henry's sister, Margaret's gov. 
  • French got control of Milan & northern Italy. Envious of Fra achievements, henry did little to halt his progress. Wolsey wanted anti-french league but Charles wanted alliance with France. 

1517 - Treaty of Cambrai

  • Charles wanted alliance w Fra led to TofCambrai. Left Eng dangerously isolated. 
  • Isolation offered Frances opportunity to undermine Anglo-Scottish relations as Albany was French nobility. Albany able to consolidate position on regent throne. Hard for Eng/Scot ally.

1518 - Treaty of London

  • Wolsey emerged as leading diplomat due to TofLondon. Pope Leo X desired united Chrsitian front against Ottoman Turks - peace negotiations with Fra&Eng. 
  • Became TofPerpetual Peace between Eng, Fra, Spa, HRE - meaningless w future conflict.
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Foreign Policy 1520-1522

1520 - Field of Cloth of Gold

  • Meeting which was over 2 weeks w Frances&Henry in June. In France, close to Calais. Used for dining and entertainment. Event lost attraction when Henry lost wrestling match to Frances.
  • Event cost royal treasury £15,000

1521 - Treaty of Bruges

  • Conflict arose between Charles and Frances, in August, Wolsey negotiated TofBruges w Charles
  • improved relations w Pope who was ancious to reduce Fre control over northern Italy, thought he may gain more fre territory, entailed marriage alliance w emperor & Princess Mary. 

1522 - England at war with France

  • Eng armies inavded Northern France in 1522 & 1523, campaigns gained little but were costly. Parliament reluctant to grant extraordinary rev to cover costs. 
  • May have improved alliance with Spain as Spain and Fra in conflict
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Foreign Policy 1525-1526

1525 - Battle of Pavia

  • Henry showed lack of stratgic awareness by how he tried to benefit from emperors defeat of French at battle of pavia, suggesting to charles to launch joint invasion on fra to achieve territory. 
  • Lack of support and had 3 major consequences; Henry's ego bruised, resentment to emperor reinforced, wolsey's domestic prestige never recovered from this

1526 - England linked with anti-Imperial League of Cognac

  • Fracturing Anglo-Imperial alliance led Wolsey & Henry in direction of pro-French foreign policy. 
  • Henry lent support to League of Cognac which pope put together to counterbalance excessive power of emperor in northern Italy following victory in Pavia
  • Proved not to be a good time to be in bad terms with emperor and emergence of problems by Kings great matter which not even Wolsey could resolve. 
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England's Relations 1527-1540

Ireland

  • Henry had few concerns in beginning of his reign, Eng authorities remained in control of Pale. Earl of Kildare was dominant Irish nobleman, both and eng courtier & servant of crown. However, it proved difficult to sustain role after Gerladine-Butler Feud & his relationship w King broke down.
  • Henry found it difficult to govern Ireland w Kildare, Kildare's dismissal led in 1534 to major rebellion led by his son. Surpressed w difficulty and expense.
  • Attempt to refashion irish gov. 1534 by bringing it more directly under Eng control failed completely. Ireland became increasing drain on crown's resources.

Ottoman Turks

  • During most of 1530's, main European powers focused to South. 
  • Ottoman Turks under warrior leader, Suleimann, has taken over most of eastern mediterranean and were threatening SE Europe including parts of HRE and Spanish territories. 
  • 1529, Turks reached Vienna and beseiged city
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England's Relations 1527-1540

England, France and Spain

  • Henry & Wolsey forced by their weak position to make anti-imperial alliance w French in TofAmiens 1527. Wolsey sought to impose trade imbargo and pressure emperor. Charles' retaliation to this created unemployment and social problems in Eng.
  • 1532, Henry tried to make fragile alliance w France as in a weak position. Henry had to try to resolve 'Great Matter' by breaking w Rome. H tried to reinforce his position by making alliance w League of Schmalkaden. 
  • Pressure upon Henry's position weakened; death of Catherine of A & execution of Anne B = new alliance? ; fighting between emperor & Frances reduced danger of Eng isloated position. 
  • 1538, Henry's position once again weakened; Charles & Frances severed connections w Eng ; Pope Paul III published bull absolving Eng catholics from need to obey ruler ; Pope sent envoys to Fra&Spa to rouse support for Catolic crusade against Henry.
  • Henry's position was actually stronger than perceived, Frances nor Charles trusted each other and friendship broke down, Henry had great enthusiasm for 6 articles act 1539 intended to reassure Catholic opinion ing Eng. 
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England's Relations 1540-1547

France

  • To facilitate French invasion, Henry agreed alliance w emperor - Henry's main concern was Fra can be seen from size of army assembled 1544. 
  • Henry, desperate for military glory, set off at head of his army. Eng army confined itself to Calais beseiging Montreuil unsuccessfully but capturing Bologne. 
  • Emperor had had enough of conflict and made peace with Fra. 
  • 1545; Frances sent troops to Scotland to reinforce possible invasion of eng, eng defeated at battle of ancrum moor - fra failed to recapture Bologne and invasion of eng never materialised. Peace agreed 1546.
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England's Relations 1540-1547

Scotland

  • 1540's Henry returned to aggressive foreign policy launching attacks on Scotland and France.
  • Eng invasions of Scotland 1542, met w immediate military success. Scots forced into military action by being faced w demands they couldn't meet. Scots defeated at battle of solway moss. 
  • James V died after receiving news and his 1 week old daughter Mary was heir, Scot had bad position. Henry's main interest was invasion of Fra; he looked to diplomatic pressure to secure Scottish objectives. 
  • Prince Edward and Mary Queen of Scots married in Treaty of Greenwich 1543. However, Scot. parliament refused to ratify treaty. Prompted enraged Henry to order Earl of Hertford to carry out raid on Edinburgh, Leith & St.Andrews
  • Henry neglected opportunity to secure his policy by military force when he could have
  • Failed to heed sadler's warnings about scottish hostility to his intentions
  • Ordering Hertford was matter of retaliation just served to antagonise Scots
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Wolsey and King's Divorce

SCRIPTUAL ARGUMENTS

  • Wolsey drew up complex line of argument based on scriptures to justify divorce in eyes of catholic chruch. 
  • He argued validity of Catherine's marriage to Henry relied on catherine's word that her first marriage to arthur had never been consumated. However, if this wasn't the case, Henry had been mislead and marriage never been valid.

DIPLOMATIC MANOEVRES

  • Second line of attack was against Emperor Charles V. As Catherine's nephew he was unlikely to support divorce and Charles at this time had control of Italy. 
  • Wolsey tried to free pope from Charles' influence by using alliance w France and renewal of warfare in Italy to distract emperor.
  • Failed because Charles was too strongly entrenched in Italian peninsula to be evicted by France.
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Wolsey and King's Divorce

LEGAL EFFORTS

  • Wolsey made divorce hearings to be held in England where he, as papal legate, would make judgement. 
  • However, Pope Clement VII was concerned not to offend Charles so although he set up commission to hear divorce case, he sent Campeggio to Eng to delay hearing and make sure decision never reached.
  • Wolsey hoped Campeggio would be cooperative. Campeggio was unwell and took months to get to eng and then wanted to do everything thoroughly.
  • When court finally met 30 June 1529 to discuss case catherine refused to recognise it and appealed to pope to move hearing to rome. 
  • Pope agreed and eng court was wound up. Wolsey run out of options for solving problem and wolsey's use to henry ended.
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Wolsey and King's Divorce

LEGAL EFFORTS

  • Wolsey made divorce hearings to be held in England where he, as papal legate, would make judgement. 
  • However, Pope Clement VII was concerned not to offend Charles so although he set up commission to hear divorce case, he sent Campeggio to Eng to delay hearing and make sure decision never reached.
  • Wolsey hoped Campeggio would be cooperative. Campeggio was unwell and took months to get to eng and then wanted to do everything thoroughly.
  • When court finally met 30 June 1529 to discuss case catherine refused to recognise it and appealed to pope to move hearing to rome. 
  • Pope agreed and eng court was wound up. Wolsey run out of options for solving problem and wolsey's use to henry ended.
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Catholic Church in England

MONKS AND NUNS ~ referred to as regular clergy. Lived in own communities and didn't interact w regular people. Devoted lives to god through prayer. In 1509, roughly 800 religous houses. Many played important role of education or caring for poor. 

UNEDUCATED PRIESTS ~ some parish priests uneducated and unable to deliver traditional services. Couldn't understand significance of mass and unable to recite basic parts of liturgy. 

CLERICAL ABUSES ~ some bishops acused of serious breaches of church discipline. Humanist reformers e.g. More and Colet drew attention to abuses such as; simony, pluralism and sexual misconduct.

BENEFITS OF CLERGY ~ priviledge of church that aroused anti-clerical sentiments at beginning of 16th century was benfit of clergy. Allowed for members of clergy who committed serious crimes to escape trail in secular courts, system of immunity open to abuses of justice. 

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Catholic Church in England

THE HUMANISTS

  • advocated reform of church. conservatives in that didn't propose new doctrines or new way of worshipping, instead called for improvement in itellectual & moral standards of clergy.
  • believed return to original scriptures necessary as subsequent editions of Latin had been mistranslated.
  • both Erasmus and Luther viewed word of god as key instrument of worship but Erasmus used it as means to encourage reform from within. aimed to revitalise church and improve standards of literacy and understanding among clergy. 

THE LOLLARDS

  • small minority of radicals who went a step further than humanists in challenging papal authority and doctrine of catholic chruch. 
  • Lollards followers of Wycliff. his reform included bible in english, closure of monasteries, and secularisation of church property. he attacked papal and priestly powers. 
  • Lollard communities few in number and did little to advance radical ideas.
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Catholic Church in England Case Studies

RICHARD HUNNE ~

  • London, 1514, demonstrated anger that benefit of the clergy provoked among the laity. Hunne challeneged church authorities over exorbitant mortuary fees he'd payed to bury his son.
  • church drew up charges of heresy and had him arressted. his supporters believed he had been murdered. 
  • this case heightened anti-clerical feelings in the capital.

WILLIAM TYNDALE ~ 

  • most outspoken Lutheran, led not only viscous attack on clergy standards but endorsed Luther's ideas on salvation. 
  • Tyndale forced to flee to continent where he personally met Luther and began to work on accurate translation of bible into english. published 1525 and most important contribution to reformation in england. 
  • 1538, henry and cromwell authorised circulation of eng bible across parishes. he was burned as heretic 1536.
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Legislation to Break w Rome

Clergy collectively accused of PRAEMUNIRE and fined (1531)

  • this begun sustained attack on clergy and forced from clergy and acknowledgement that King was 'Protector and Supreme Head of Eng Church' as the 'law of christ allows'.
  • announced him as head of churches, means less of a connection to pope making break somewhat easier.
  • diehard conservatives outraged and insisted the 'as law of christ allows'. Radical faction started to hold sway over conservatives. 

Act in Conditional Restraints of Annates (Jan 1532)

  • annates revenue paid to pope by bishop; they were church taxes collected in england and sent to rome a.k.a first fruits. Designed to increase pressure on papacy by withholding conditionally first years income which traditionally went to catholic church. 
  • conditional shows the contreversy caused by such a decree. not only was papal power challenged but papal rights of consecration also. 
  • traditional bishops voted against this legislation as reluctant to see papal authority dissolve and power of monarchy increase further.  Henry had doubts 1532 about gaining supremacy.
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Legislation to Break w Rome

Supplication against the Ordinaries (March 1532)

  • form of petition addressed to king by house of commons and directed against alleged abuses of ordinary jurisdiction. Designed to increase anticlerical pressure within house of commons. 

Act for Submission of the Clergy (May 1532)

  • Formal surrender of Church's independent law-making function. Provoked resignation of More as Lord Chancellor. 
  • Henry determined to assert supremacy over church this was drawn up in which legislative independence of church being surrendered to crown. 
  • Convocation could only meet with permission of king, canon laws had to be approved first by king, and exisiting canon laws had to be inspected and any that undermined royal authority were to be removed.
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Legislation to Break w Rome

Act of Restraint of Appeals (April 1533)

  • declared the moarch possessed an imperial jurisdiction which wasn't subject to any foreign power. declared appeals couldn't be made to rome regarding church court decisions. meant catherine could not appeal to rome. 
  • rome could no longer get involved with the annulment

The Act of Dispensations (1534)

  • stopped all payments to rome including peter's pence. dispensations allowing for exemptions and departures from canon law would be issued by archbishop of canterbury not rome. failure to abide by this result in charge of praemunire. 
  • restricted money going to pope and catholic church - went to henry instead. could be charged with treason if don't obey. 
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Legislation to Break w Rome

The Act of Succession (April 1534)

  • act delcared; henry's marriage to catherine was void, succession vested in children of him and anne, deny the validity henry's marriage to anne was treasonable, oath taken to affirm acceptance of new marriage.
  • solidifies illegitimacy of children and marriage is void.

The Act of Spremacy (Nov 1534)

  • gave legislative force to royal supremacy. stated king as head of church and effectively accomplished break with rome. 
  • he's now in charge of all religous issues and pope has no control.

Act for First Fruit and Tenths (Nov 1534)

  • typically cynical move. annated paid by bishop had been intolerable when paid to pope but now acceptable to pay to henry. increased financial burden on clergy and strengthened royal supremacy.
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Legislation to Break w Rome

The Treason Act (Nov 1534)

  • treason could be committed now by the spoken word as well as deed or writing, treasonable to describe king as 'heretic, infidel, tyrant or usurper of crown'.
  • no one could disprespect henry's position, has now prevented any rebellions that people may start as is treasonable to even speak about his annulment and new marriage to anne. 
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