Henry VIII 1509-1547

Henry VIII

- Henry VIII contrasted his dad's image of what a king should be (energetic, young, spent money)

- H7 left crown rich and solvent at his death

- H7 avoided any major foreign wars throughout whole reign

- H7 had seen off threat of pretenders e.g Warbeck and Simnel

- H7 had nurtured friendship with Ferdinand of Aragon, giving Eng stability in foreign affairs but no other benefits. Catherine abandoned after Arthur's death.

- Many still resented H7 and were alienated by his actions

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Notes

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Wolsey (+)

- Was confident and had high intellectual ability, became H8's key noble

- Would tell H8 what he wanted to hear, winning Henry over

Had great power in religious affairs, but didn't intervene much

- Act of Resumption --> returned land to nobility and increased crown income

- Subsidy tax --> greater you earn, more tax you pay, replaced 15ths and 10ths

- Centralisation of power created to help develop a nation free from foreign interference

- Achieved papal legate status, giving him almost complete control of Eng church

- Made efforts to stop enclosures, launched a nationwide investigation

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Wolsey (-)

- Only able to raise £700,000 for war (not enough)

- Forced loans and Amicable grant very unpopular(AG caused rebellion in Suffolk)

- Relations with parliament, wouldn't give Wolsey money he needed, expected parliament ot merely 'rubber-stamp' policies but didn't work with him.

- Wolsey v unpopular with nobility leading him to be blamed for Duke of Buckingham's execution (made some rich + powerful enemies)

- Was happy to trample people's legal rights when it suited him and used legal system as means of exercising control over Eng)

- Failed to stop practice of enclosure, abandoned anti-enclosure effort in 1523

- Mainly ignored pope once gained legate position, used churches to fund lifestyle

- Argued Wolsey didn't care about spiritual matters or what people really believed

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Annulment (+)

- Basis of argument was Leviticus (sin to marry brothers wife), also didn't have a child

- Cardinal Campeggio sent to London (appointed by judge to act as pope)

- Pope escaped from Charles V control

- Wolsey fell from power as he was close to the Pope

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Annulment (-)

- Wolsey had to get impossible annulment

- Campeggio kept postponing meetings and eventually put trial back in Rome

- Annulment opposed by Charles V (Emperor), Catherine of Aragon, Pope Clement VII and Bishop Fisher#

- Blackfriar trial (Showed Catherine's determination)

- Pope under Charles V control

- Corruption made Wolsey vulnerable

- Wolsey got on wrong side of Anne

- Nobles oppossed Wolsey

- Wolsey banished from court

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First French War (+)

- H wanted more power, prestige, wealth and land and wanted to assert historical rights to French throne and overthrow the King of France

- H sent 25,000 troops in Northern France --> Gives him prestige

- Therouanne and Tournai were captured easily

- Louis XII realised he would be foolish to confront H's well-supplied army

- Wolsey's rise to power was secured

- French pension backlog was paid up

- Mary given up in marriage to Louis XII

- Treaty of London --> 20 European Rulers signed

- FOCOG --> fortnight long jousting tournament, 6000 attended

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First French War (-)

- Ferdinand = not reliable ally, attacked Navare instead. Lacked supplies for the expedition to Northern Spain.

- Ferdinand and Maximilian proved to be unreliable, forcing H into a more limited local plan rather than the alliance attack

- France bribed Max + Ferd, forcing H to abandon plans for another attack in 1514

- War cost a lot for no real damage to France

- No money for another campaign

- Captured cities went to Maximilian

- Death of Louis and accession of Francis raised French power

FOCOG --> Nothing of diplomatic value, at war again in 2 years, cost year of rev

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Second and Third French War (+)

- Duke of Bourbon joined coalition against Francis

- Anglo-French treaty of the More

- Eng and Fr didnt go to war again until 1543

- 3rd --> Anglo-Imperial alliance against France

- Army led by H departs for France

- Boulogne captured

- Anglo-French peace of Ardres

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Second and Third French War (-)

- Eng troops making ineffective raids in Picardy

- Eng troops unsuccessful march on Paris

- Pavia had Eng end old enmity to France, cemented by Treaties of the More, Westminster and Amiens

- 3rd --> Franco Imperial Peace of Crepy

- French attempted invasion of SW England, Fr troops sent to Scotland

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Wars against Scotland

Scots defeated at Battle of Flodden, James IV killed

- England declared war on Scotland

- Decisive victory over the Scots at Solway Moss, death of James V and accession of Mary

- Treaties of Greenwich with Scotland (they rejected)

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Society

- Act for Resuming Certain Liberties to the crown --> allowed H to destroy the privileges of those areas where the King's writ had not run or was strictly limited

- Cromwell had control over Calais, Wales, North Eng and Ireland

- Major changes to: Irish parliament, Land reform, Cultural changes, Earl of Desmond, Tyrone

- Made former English friar Archbishop of Dublin to promote the royal supremact and crown's religious programme.

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Economic development (+)

- English trade mainly cloth exports

- Increasing use of London as a port

- Benefitted farmers + land owners (price of produce increased)

- Upper class became richer

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Economic development (-)

- Profits of cloth trade did not always go to England because much of the trade was in foreign hands before the 1550s

- London as port had negative impacts on other ports such as Bristol, Hull and Boston

- Debasement - reduction in silver content of coins and its replacement by base metal

- Population increase: had strain on food supply, wages limited, lower class became poorer, bad harvest years also impacted

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Religion (+)

- Clergy accussed of praemunire

- Convocation of Canterbury recognised H as Head of the Church

- First Act of Annates (banned payments of annates to Rome)

- Supplication of Ordinaries(clergy not to enact any church law without royal perm)

- Submission of Clergy (accepted Henry as their lawmaker not pope)

- Second Act of Annates (confirmed 1st act)

- First act of succession --> registered H marriage to C as invalid, nation to take oath upholding marriage of H and A

- Act of 10 articles

- Act of 6 articles + Bishops book published

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Religion (-)

- Clergy pardoned of Praemunire charge

- Henry married Anne of Cleves then marriage annulled

- Cromwell arrested and executed

- Catherine Howard executed

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Dissolution of Monasteries (+)

- Act for dissolution of lesser monasteries 1536 (smaller monasteries worth less than £200 were closed down)

- Chantries Act passed 1545 (allowed for dissolution of chantries though not enforced)

- Causes include financial motives, patronage and greed, continential influence and end to opponents of the break of Rome

- Lincolnshire rising stopped by Duke of Suffolk's army and everyone sent home

- POG stopped when truce signed. H offered no concessions other than pardoning all but 10 ringleaders. Ended with the 24 articles being presented and H promising they would be discussed

Lack of fear because of: Fear, Many thought changes wouldn't last, Expected H to remain catholic, concern for no1, did not notice changes, end result wasnt clear

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Dissolution of Monasteries (-)

- Imperial idea - idea monasteries owing allegiance to parent institutions outside England became unacceptable to Henry

- Opposition - Thomas More (uncomfortable with divorce plans, refused to swear Oath of succession and was imprisoned and executed.                                                                   John Fisher, Bishop of Rochester (stood by Catherine and had                               been in direct contact with emperor, asking him to use armed                                   intervention. Imprisoned and executed.

- Lincolnshire Rising --> began because dissolution result of greed, Bishop of Lincoln murdered, led by Nicholas Melton, 10,000+ people assembled

- POG --> Led by Robert Aske, started after news of LR spread, 30,000men moved from Pontefract to York. Gov caught off guard and rebels presented their 5 articles

Rebellions caused by: dissolution of monasteries, defence of faith, food shortage, taxation, Cromwell's policies

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