Henry IV Rebellions


The Neville - Percy Dispute: Hotspurs Rebellion

September 1402:

  • dispute b/t Percies and Henry IV, the king ordered that no prisoners could be randomes w/o his explicit permission
  • Earl of Northumberland handed over his prisioners - unlike Percy
  • They wanted the king to pay money for their military service
  • Hotspur's wife was aunt of Edmund (rightful heir), which made king suspicious
  • King would not comprimise on the issue of Hotspur's military and financial gain
  • Welsh capture Mortimer IV, king calls him a traitor and refuses to allow Percies to negotiate his freedom

April 1403:

  • Prince of Wales placed in high command - left Hotspur in low power
  • Hotspur rebelled, they fought against the royal army at Shewsbury and were defeated
  • Hotspur was killed and displayed
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Owain Glyndwr and the Welsh Rebellion

September 1400:

  • Glyndwr led a rebellion which elavated Owain to the status of a prince
  • he plotted the death of Henry IV and Lancastrian regime
  • within a week his forces were overwhelmed by troops raised by the local Lancastrian
  • Henry left his son in charge with Hotspur as the real military commander
  • Glyndwr and his supporters adopted gorrila tactics
  • Glyndwr captured Edmund Mortimer IV and he sided with the welsh
  • Parliament enacted a series of statutes forbidding the state of food supplies or armour to Wales and prohibiting public meetings, bearing of arms, keeping of castles - especially any who showed allegiance to the 'traitor' Owain Glyndwr
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Henry's Relations with France

  • Orleans had sent help to Bolingbroke (Henry IV) to cause England trouble so he could take over
  • with Richard II's death, the young dawager queen should have been returned to France with all her wealth
  • Instead though hostile negotiations, she was returned with nothing
  • Orleans challenged Henry twice to armed combat but Henry declined saying Orleand rank was too low


  • Henry III had to give up many family claims and Angevin territory
  • EdwardIII renewed English monarchy claim to area of France and refused to undertake an act of homage to French King (beginning of hundred years war)
  • Richard II was popular in Aquitaine and Henry was not
  • Charles VI granted Aquitaine to his heir, the Dauphin Louis
  • this triggered serious outbreak of piracy on both sides of the channel - piracy had a financial and trade impact
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Henry's Relations with Scotland

  • King of Scots Robert III refused to recognise the legality of the usurpation and made a number of raids on northern countries
  • Henry informed parliament that he would wage war against Scotland and wrote to Robert demanding that they performed an act of homage (fued) to him as their 'good lord'
  • Scots did not comply - Henry invaded with an army of more than 15,000 (obliged to borrow army in order to support them, which was risky given his fragile political and financial position)
  • No decisions were made and army returned home
  • Henry was more concerned with not leaving the throne for too long
  • The English defeated a Scottish raiding force, taking various important captives
  • However, this caused Hotspur's rebellion in 1403
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Scrope's Rebellion and break down in health

  • Caused by financial burden of defenceand mismanagment of finance of king's government
  • Revolt was put down effectively and Scrope was executed in June
  • It was extremely unconventional for a senior clergyman to be executed
  • Henry betrayed Thomas Arundel's trust
  • Henry died of natural causes which began within days of the execution
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How did Henry Survive the Threats to his Regime?

  • In 1402 his daughter, Blanche, married the eldest son of Rupert, Ludwig who was a close ally to France
  • Marriage of another daughter, Philippa, to king of Norway, Sweden and Denmark in 1406 to gain support with Hanseatic League
  • He married Jean of Brittany (widow of duke of Brittany and daughter of Charles II of Navarre) - created alliance with Brittany
  • Informal alliances formed with the kingof Portugal and king of Castile,through order of the Garter
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How Henry IV survived threats

Threats from Foreginers:

  • Robert III from Scots (returned home from battle)
  • Orleans from France (dealt w/ nobility in area)
  • Welsh Rebellion (returend home from Scots to reduce threat)

Financial Difficulties:

  • Borrowed money to finance army of 15,000 (attempted to prevent a real battle)
  • Using all finance on defence and mismanagement of finance of king's goverment (only taxing when war is upcoming)

Threats from Internal:

  • Hotspur's rebellion (Hotspur killed and displayed)
  • Scrope's rebellion (executed although dissaproved)
  • Epiphany rising (Henry was forewarned)
  • Owain Glyndwr (stopped trading and took castles)
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