Media and Collective Identity Terminology Question 2

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Hegemony- Marxist Theory- Althusser

1. Althusser 

Althusser argues that one of the ways which the state maintains controls is through ideological state apparatus. This includes the media, education, religion, family. Idealogical state apparatus are a range of different groups who transmit dominant ideology to the people, again maintaining hegemony. You could consider the extent to which the media representation we have looked at are reinforcing dominant values. 

This is a later source them Gramsic. This would be good to use in a intro to explain how the media controls our view on the 'right' way of acting and our natural instinces. Explain how we tend to highlight groups who dont act under these rules.

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2. Cohen (1972)

Cohen studied the media response to the mods and rockers riots in the 1960s. He argued that from time to time 'folk devils' emerge in a society which reflect the anxieties of society at that time (e.g mods and rockers relect social anxiety about the emergence of youth culture, rock and roll ect.) A moral panic occurs when the media reports on these 'folk devils' in a sensationalised way which leads to intervention by politicians, and the police. The effect of a moral panic is to reassert hegemony by allowing a society to make clear what values it does not accept. The representation of working class youths suggest they have become a contemporary 'folk devil', perhaps tapping into economic anxieties, concern about a benefits culture, and long term unemployment.

Quadiphelia and how the newpaper cut out is feactured in this. And how this fuels the character on making ideals of the people in the paper.

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Hegemony- Marxist Theory- Gramsci

3. Gramsci 

Gramsci developed the concept of cultural hegemony. This is the idea that one social class (usually the middle class) is able to dominate a society by making their way of and values appear normal, natural and common sense. As a result other social classes accept these values as the normal way of life.  Gramsci does see hegemony as a site of constant struggle - societies are constantly debating what is and isn't acceptable. you could relate this to the more positive representations of working class youth in 'Fish Tank', does this challenge the perception of working class as thugs? 

He is more contemporary with his theories. Relate theses things with Conner in Fish Tanks and also how this is challenged. 

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Acland (1995)

4. Acland 1995

Acland argues that media representations of delinquent youth actually reinforce hegemony. They do this by constructing an idea of 'normal' adult and you behabiour, and contrasting it with deviant youth behaviou which is shown to be unacceptable. Acland also claims that media representation of young people out of control allows the state to have more control of the (e.g. media reports about delinquent youth led to ASBOs). This is something Acland calls the 'ideology of protection'- the idea that young people need constant surveillance and moniroring. This happens because youth is the time when young people learn about social roles and values, and allows the state to mae sure they conform to hegemonic values.


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Acland 2

4. Acland

When applng Aland think about the extent to which media representations shows young people as in need of control. Do the representations show young people as in need of behaving in an unacceptable way? If so does this identify what behaviour society thinks is acceptable (i.e. hegemonic)? You may want to focus particularly on how the representation we looked at show working class youths to be deviant, thus reinforcing middle class hegemony.

New paper relations and how they over hyped the london riots. Eden Lake, the teen character are examples of this and it is the opposite to the main character in Fish Tank.

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Giroux 1997

5. Giroux 1997

Giroux argues that in media representations youth becomes an 'empty category'. This is because media represenations of young people are constructed by adults. Because of this they reflect adults concerns, anxieties and needs. As a result of this media representations of young people do not necessarily reflect the reality of youth identity.

When applying Giroux to media texts you need to think about who constructed representation relect adult anxieties or serve the purposed of adult society (e.g. by reinforcing hegemonic values)

Talk about the inbetweener and how the creater have made 'normal' things teens do into a joke that people can laugh at.

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David Gauntlett- Making is Connecting

6. David Gauntlett- Making is Connecting

Web 2.0 offer opportunities for people to create both their own identities and collective identities through becoming the producers of media themselves, as opposed to just consumers. This is a powerful tool in his eyes: "its possible to be too optimistic about this but I thinlk there's no pont in being pessimistic".

write about the youtubers and how they make media and reflect it to Giroux theory. The times are changing.

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