Name Nikky Hart's 5 features of the biomedical mod
- Disease is PHYSICAL
- Doctors are ELITE
- Medicine is a CURE
- Illness is TEMPORARY
- Treatment is SPECIAL
Why are doctors seen as elite?
They have the ability and knowledge to treat and cure illnesses - saving lives
Which social class has the highest infant mortalit
The working class
Name the 4 possible explanations for health inequa
What is meant by inverse care law?
Those who need health care the most - receive the poorest kind.
Name 4 groups that are more likely to suffer menta
- Married women
- Afro-Carribean people
- Working class
- Women (in comparison to men)
What does Szasz think mental illness is?
A social construct that doesn't really exist
What is latrogenesis?
Illich believes it is when the medical elite cause illness rather than cure it
- side effects.
Name 3 types of latrogenesis described by Illich?
- Clinical - ineffective diagnosis
- Social - medicalisation of social life
- Cultural - destruction of people's ways of coping
What is the "march of progress"?
The elimination of disease because of the improvment of medicine.
e.g. small pox
What does Mckeown say about the "march of progress
Health has improved because of:
- better public hygiene
- Better diets
- Declining of family size
- Housing legislation
The criticisms of the sick role?
- Some people are to blame for their illness
- Some people go to work ill
- There are new alternative therapies
- Gives too much power to doctors
Feminist views on health and illness?
- Pregnancy is seen as a health problem treated in a hospital
- Women tend to be nurses and men doctors - doctors get paid more.
- Contraception is aimed at women
Marxist views on health and illness?
- Ensure workers remain healthy
a healthy worker is a productive worker
- Keep companies afloat
What does the "postcode lottery" mean?
When your residence determines the quality and availability of the NHS services.
How does social class affect health
- Doctors set up practices in upper-class areas
- Middle class patients are given more time
- Middle class people know how to interact with doctors easier
- Middle class have more flexible jobs and transport
Why are women more likely to go to a doctor than m
- Women are socialized to be expressive of their emotions
- Women are more in tune with health issues (magazines)
- Women have more convenient working hours
- Women are more stereo-typically vulnerable
How does ethnicity affect health care?
- Ethnic minorities use NHS less often
- Poorer language skills
lack of translation
women not willing to be treated by men doctors
- Socio-economic background
How does the patient's age affect health care serv
- Women over the age of 65 are not invited to breast screening
over 3/4 of deaths by breast cancer are of this age group
- 1/5 of heart units operate on age policy
- Clinical trials mainly exclude the elderly.
What is spurious interaction?
Not listening to someone because you do not agree with what they are saying
How do rates of mental illness vary?
- Gender - women are more likely to be diagnosed with mental illness - more so depression and men schizophrenia.
- Ethnicity - Afro-Caribbeans are more likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia.
- Social class - poorer people are more likely to be diagnosed with a mental illness.
- Age - the elderly are more likely to accept a mental illness and so accept and live by the label.
What did the "Black Report" find?
Found there was a clear health gap between working and middle classes.
What is the artefact approach suggested in the Bla
- Underclass are of worse health than upper class
- There are less underclass so the difference isn't that clear
What are the theories of natural selection suggest
Health influences social class
- unable to maintain a job
What is the behavioral explanation suggested in th
Working class lead a different lifestyle to the middle-class
What are the materialistic factors of the Black Re
Blames society for low income, poor housing and poor working conditions.
Why do women suffer more illnesses than men?
- Women have the triple shift
- Women are subjected to poverty more - single mother.
Why do women live longer than men?
- Seek medical help more
- Drink and smoke less
- Less dangerous jobs
- Men take more risks
4 reasons for ethnic minorities suffering from mor
high blood pressure
sickle cell anemia
Use of different cooking oils and eating habits
socio-economic factors - living conditions
- Racism during diagnosis
What is Parsons' sick role?
A form of social control, by there being rights and obligations that a sick person is expected to get.