HEALTH CARE - medical, nursing, specialist paramedic or therapeutic care that is provided to treat a person who has a physical or mental health problem that affects their ability to function.
PRIMARY HCS - 'first contact' services provided in community settings to treat everyday, less serious ailments.
SECONDARY HCS - provided through a hospital after a person has been diagnosed or reffered for treatment.
TERTIARY HCS - provided in both community and institutional settings for people who have chronic or terminal health care needs.
[A collective term for private and voluntary care sectors]
the independent sector consists of 'informal carers and private practitioners'. the independent sector has become increasingly important because;
- conservative and recent labour govts have deliberately encouraged independent sector provision.
- demographic factors including the ageing population, have created a growing demand for health & social care.
- a rise in the number of women in paid work, outside of the home, has increased the need for child care services.
- there is a lack of adequate public service in some areas.
[Care services that are provided to people who are willing and able to pay for them]
- care is sold to the public to make a profit.
- service users may pay directly for care or have private health insurance
- some govts run organisations who agree a funding contract with a private care provider, e.g. care homes for the elderly.
- people use private health care because they dont want to wait, they want chocies or that specific treatment is not available on the NHS.
- limited in range compared to NHS services people are willing to pay for.
- in a fully privatised care system it is likely that poorer people would not have adequate access to care services.
- also services which are not commercially viable would not be available or would be poorly funded.
[Care services that are provided free of charge or for a small subsided fee by non-profit making organisations]
- 19th century - philanthropic people, such as Cadbury Family; established the voluntary sector as a major provider of basic health care and welfare in the UK.
- rely on donations to run.
- established because a group decided to do it - no legal requirement.
- usually registered charities - not for profit.
- partly staffed and run by unpaid volunteers.
Cadbury: The legacy in Birmingham
1824: John Cadbury opened up a shop on the motive that selling tea, coffee, drinking chocolate and cocoa amongst other things would serve as an alternative to alcohol, in which he thought that this was the main cause of poverty.
1840s: John’s brother Benjamin joined the company to form Cadbury Brothers.
1854: Royal warrant issued.
1861: John’s sons, George and Richard took over the business and expanded it.
A new factory was then opened in the area of Bournville. George believed in human equality and wished to provide low-cost quality homes for his workers.
1899: Richard died and George continued to provide better working conditions for his employees.
1901: George gave the Bournville estate to the Bournville Village Trust.
Subsequent generations of the Cadbury family also took on the responsibility of their workers, from ensuring pensions were set up to founding colleges in the local community.
Informal Care Sector
[Care that is provided by relatives and friends on an unpaid basis outside of the care professional system]
- huge contribution
- carers- people who are looking after or providing some regular service for a sick, handicapped or elderly person living in their own or another private household.
- 2/3 of informal carers have to combine this role with paid employment.
- informal care tasks; personal care, cleaning, shopping, walking the dog, providing company, [sitting in to enable main carer to go out] -> RESPITE CARE
Legislation and Care
1] The Family Allowance Act (1945) - providing an allowance to families for all the children but the first,
2] The National Insurance Act (1946) - helps cover people's loss of earnings because of employment, retirement, sickness, disability or widowhood.
3] The National Health Service Act (1948) - establishing a free health service that all people are entitiled to.
4] The National Assistance Act (1948) - a safety net for those who are destitute.
Access To Services
Not being able to access services could have consequences for a persons health and well-being.
- mental health affected/stressed
- socially withdrawn
- rights infringed
The Origins of Care Services
1940-birth of the welfare state
Beveridge report, 5 evils of society:
suggested that the government develop and fun a range of services.
1940-1970: Golden era; many hospitals, schools and other care facilities built and lots of people trained. [paid for through tax and NI.]
very expensive-started to charge for some services
The Origins of Care Service 
1990s - internal market
- creates competition, choice, cuts costs, reduces inefficiency
criticism - focuses on costs of care rather than quality.
Legislation and the Care System
 The Family Allowance Act (1945) - providing an allowance to families for all children but the first.
 The National Insurance Act (1946) - helps cover peoples loss of earnings because of employment, retirement, sickness, disability or widowhood.
 The National Health Service Act (1948) - establishing a free health service that all people were entitiled to.
 The National Assistance Act (1948) - a safety net for those who are destitute.
Example; The Family Allowance Act provides allowance to families for all children but the first. for example, if a couple had 3 young children they would recieve an allowance to help pay for their care.
Legislation and the Care System 
The Children Act (1989) - the act aims to establish the rights of children with respect to their care and safety. it makes it a requirement for social services to support families whilst also protecting them from danger.
The Mental Health Act (1983) - the act aims to establish the rights of people with mental health problems. it balances the human rights of the individual with the rights and protection of society.
Disability Discrimination Act (1995) - the act aims to establish the rights of disabled people with regards to employment, access to goods and services, education etc. it makes it illegal for an organisation to treat a disabled person less equally than anyone else unless it can be justified.
Human Rights Act (1998) - the act establishes the rights of all human beings and makes it illegal to hurt others psychologically, socially and emotionally.
NHS and Community Care Act (1990) - to reduce the expense of the NHS, create competition and provide community care.
Effectiveness of Legislation
The Children Act (1989) - Example; if parents are struggling to cope with their children, health professionals (social workers) will help to resolve conflict within the family before taking the child out.
The Mental Health Act (1983) - Example; gives professionals the right to detain patients who are a risk to themselves/society.
Disability Discrimination Act (1995)- Example; health professionals have a legal requirement to give disabled people the same rights even if it means spending more money.
Human Rights Act (1998)- Example; health professionals are able to set out rules and regulations if bullying and discrimination occurs in a work place.
NHS and Community Care Act (1990)