Health, Biomechanics

NCEA Level One, Health Internal. 

Apply's To New Zealanders. Year 11 

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Purpose of the Skeleton

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Provide support for the body

Make blood cells

Provide attachments for muscles and tendons

Shape of the body

Store calcium phosphate

Protect vital organs such as the brain, heart, lungs, and spinal cord. 

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Words that Relate to the Movement of the Body? and their meanings (8)

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Anterior-in front

Posterior-at the back

Distal-away from the source of the limbs 

Proximal-near the source of the limbs

Inferior-move down the body

Superior-move up the body

Medial-near the midline

Lateral-away from the mid line 

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Types of Movement of Joints  (6)

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Flexion-closing of the joint

Extension-opening of the joint

Abduction-movement away from the midline or imaginary centre line

Adduction-movement towards midline or imaginary centre line

Circumduction-combination of all movement at a joint

Rotation-twisting movement at a joint 

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Movement of the Joints Continued (6) 

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Pronation-turning the forearm over to face downwards

Supination-turning the palm up pr forwards

Inversion-turning the sole of the foot inwards

Eversion-turning the sole of the foot outwards

Dorsiflexion-points your toes towards the ceiling

Plantar flexion-when you point your toes towards the floor

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What Do muscles usually do? 

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Skeleton Muscles usually work in Pairs

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What are the short-term effects of Exercise? 

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Heart rate goes up-Muscles start to work harder, therefore requiring more oxygen and producing more carbon dioxide, which needs to be, removes from the body. 

Breathing is deeper-hearts starts working harder, so supplies of blood are sent around the body for use by the muscles.

Blood pressure increases-Lungs work harder; breathing is now faster and deeper.  Takes in more oxygen and remove more carbon dioxide. 

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Short Term Effects of Exercise Continued

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Respiration goes up-contracting muscles squeeze the veins, squiring blood back from the heart much faster

Sweating starts-Helps to remove heat generate from the body and cool it down

Body temperature goes up-heart fills up more, relaxes then contracts more strongly pumping more blood with each beat. 

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What is Balance? 

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An equal force from the opposite direction balances a force from any given direction.


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What is Centre of Gravity? 

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 A force that is always present and is a pulling force in the direction of the centre of the earth. 

 -Force acts on everybody through an imaginary point called the CENTER OR GARVITY

Can be described as the centre point of weight and balance. 

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Base of support? 

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The wider the support the more balanced the object will be

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Stability of the Body depends on? 

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The height and centre gravity

The size of the base of support

The line of Gravity

Mass of the body

The direction of the applied force 

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Principles of Projectile motion?

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The movement of Objects in the air

-May be a shot put in the air

-Basketball player in the air, performing Jump shot

-Gymnast doing back flip

-Badminton player leaping to play a smash

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Distant object travel on depends on? 

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A-Angle                         The angle of release

H-Height                        Height of release

V-Velocity                       Velocity of release 

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Principles of Motion?


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Linear-Running a straight line

Rotary-Rotation round axis (round joint)

General-the two at the same time (such as swimming) 

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What is fourcemation? 

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 When maximum force is wanted to be applied/desired.

Use as many contributing body parts as possible.

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The Working Muscle ? 

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Contracts and Shortens

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Explain in Detail how the quads and hamstrings work together to cause movement and control extension of the knee joint? 

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In the extension of the knee joint the agonist muscle, which is the working muscle, is the quadriceps. The antagonist, the relaxing muscle, is the hamstring. This shows that muscles work in pairs to provide movement. The agonist is the muscle that contracts and shortens and the antagonist is the muscle that relaxes. 

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