Health and Social Care Unit 6

Revision cards for Unit 6 

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What are 5 ways in which germs can be spread?

  • Nose, mouth, or eyes to hands to others:
    Germs can spread to the hands by sneezing, coughing, or rubbing the eyes and then can be transferred to other family members or friends. Simply washing your hands can help prevent such illnesses as the common cold or eye infections.
  • Hands to food:
    Usually germs are transmitted from unclean hands to food by an infected food preparer who didn’t wash his or her hands after using the toilet. The germs are then passed to those who eat the food. This is easily prevented by always washing your hands after using the toilet and before preparing food items. 
  • Food to hands to food:
    Germs are transmitted from raw foods, such as chicken, to hands while preparing a meal. The germs on the hands are then transferred to other uncooked foods, such as salad. Cooking the raw food kills the initial germs, but the salad remains contaminated.
  • Infected child to hands to other children:
    Germs are passed from a child with diarrhea to the hands of the parent during diaper changing. If the parent doesn’t immediately wash his or her hands, the germs that cause diarrhea are then passed to others.
  • Animals to people:Wash your hands after petting animals or touching any surfaces they come into contact with.
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Why does coronary heart disease happen?

Coronary heart disease is the term that describes what happens when your heart's blood supply is blocked or interrupted by a build-up of fatty substances in the coronary arteries.

Over time, the walls of your arteries can become furred up with fatty deposits. This process is known as atherosclerosis and the fatty deposits are called atheroma.

Atherosclerosis can be caused by lifestyle habits and other conditions, such as:

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Diagnosing coronary heart disease

If your doctor feels you are at risk of CHD, they may carry out a risk assessment. This involves asking about your medical and family history, your lifestyle and taking a blood test.

Further tests may be needed to confirm a diagnosis of CHD, including:

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Symptoms of CHD

The most common symptoms of coronary heart disease (CHD) are chest pain (angina) and a heart attack.

You can also experience symptoms, including palpitations and unusual breathlessness. In some cases, people may not have any symptoms before they are diagnosed.

Although symptoms can vary, the discomfort or pain of a heart attack is usually similar to that of angina but it is often more severe. During a heart attack you may also experience the following symptoms:

  • sweating
  • light-headedness
  • nausea
  • breathlessness

The symptoms of a heart attack can be similar to indigestion. For example, they may include a feeling of heaviness in your chest, a stomach ache or heartburn - although this can be accompanied by a pain that affects the arms (particularly the left arm), the neck and the jaw. In some cases, you may have a heart attack without any symptoms, called a silent myocardial infarction. This is more common in people with diabetes.

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Seasonal Flu

Flu is a highly infectious and very common viral illness that is spread by coughs and sneezes.

It's not the same as the common cold. Flu is caused by a different group of viruses and symptoms tend to be more severe and last for longer.

You can catch flu - short for influenza - all year round, but it is especially common in winter, which is why it is also known as 'seasonal flu'.

Flu causes a sudden high temperature, headache and general aches and pains, tiredness and sore throat.

You can also lose your appetite, feel nauseous and have a cough.

Flu symptoms can make you feel so exhausted and unwell that you have to stay in bed and rest until you feel better.

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Seasonal Flu Causes

The flu virus is contained in the millions of tiny droplets that come out of the nose and mouth when someone coughs or sneezes.

These droplets typically spread about one metre. They hang suspended in the air for a while before landing on surfaces, where the virus can survive for up to 24 hours.

Anyone who breathes in the droplets can catch flu. And anyone who touches the surfaces the droplets have landed on can also catch flu if they pick up the virus on their hands and then touch their nose or mouth.

Everyday items at home and in public places can easily become contaminated with traces of flu virus including food, door handles, the remote control, handrails, telephone handsets and computer keyboards.

So, it's very important to wash your hands frequently to prevent catching and spreading flu.

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