How attitudes and prejudices are learnt (primary)
Socialisation: the process whereby we learn the values, norms and culture of society into which we are born.
Primary socialisation: learning language, how to behave, rules in the home enviroment, customs and family practises. Starts at birth from the first attachment or bond we have with our parents. A child's life is only as big as the home enviroment and children accept it as normal.
How people learn prejudice -
- Parents have prejudicial norms and values, children adopt/ copy parents attitudes and actions.
- What parents say must be true.
- Toys and games that children are encouraged to play with.
How are attitudes and prejudices learnt (secondary
Secondary socialisation: process where a child come to understand social norms of the wider society (not just in the home). The assumption that everyone's experiences are the same is challenged by contact with the wider world.
How people learn prejudice -
- School: in school children come in contact with adults and other children that have different backgrounds and experiences.
- Peers: peers make children realise that others have needs and desires different to their own. Children begin to view themselves through social relationships. They begin to measure their value as individuals by comparing themselves to others.
- Media: the media influence children as they often see characters as role models. children may also have difficulty seeing the difference between reality and fantasy.
The possible effects of attitudes and prejudice
Prejudice can lead to discrimination, preventing people from having their needs met. Discrimination can lead to bulling of vulnerable people by those who are in positions of power. In care settings this can result in mistreatment.
Discrimination and abuse damage people both pschologically and physically through the stress of the situation. Discrimination also has an impact on self esteem.
Self esteem - the ability to believe in yourself, tohave confidence in your abilities, to be self assured and self respected, and to have positive self regard.
Negative side effects on self esteem and sense of empowerment can delay the healing process as well as being an integral part of care. Clients may feel a sense of helplessness and hopelessness which will affect their ability to be independent and take part in their own care.
... effects continued
Empowerment - the process through which people exercise choice and make decisions about their own lives.
Direct discrimination - Obvious discrimination through the words or actions of another who is deliberately disadvantaging another.
Indirect discrimination - occurs when certain conditions demonstrate a preference for some people over others.
Examples - (Disability discrimination, sexism, ageism, racism, direct and indirect)