Health and Clinical Psychology Theories

Flash cards for the theories related to studies in the Health and Clincial section of A2 Psychology

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Health Belief Model (Becker)

  • Cognitive approach that identifies the factors that indicated the possiblity of an individual adopting a health behaviour
  • A results of the individual's attitudes and beliefs
  • There are 6 stages the changing behaviour:

1 - Perveived Susceptibility: How much you believe you will have a condition

2 - Perceived Severity: Whethere you believe it will be serious or not

3 - Perceived Benefits: What are the benefits if the behaviour is changed

4 - Perceived Barriers: What is stopping them

5 - Cues to action: Things that will remind, or make them forget, an action

6 - Self-efficacy: Beliefs they can achieve a recommended action

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Locus of Control (Rotter)

  • The level of control a person has will affect their behaviour
  • Internal Contol - Controlled by you
  • External Control - Controlled by luck and fate
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Self-Efficacy (Bandura)

  • How effective a person thinks they will be at successfully adopting a health behaviour
  • Based on the thought processes of an individual
  • There are 3 things which affect a person's self efficacy:

1 - Vicariour experiences: seeing other people do something successful

2 - Verbal Persuasion: someone else telling you that you can do something

3 - Emotional Arousal: Too much anxiety can reduce self-efficacy

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Stress Inoculation Therapy (Meichenbaum)

  • Cognitive approach that involves restructing thought that contribute to stress
  • There are 3 main components to SIT:

1 - Patient becomes aware of the thoughts they have in a stressful situation

2 - Develop coping stratergies by being taught to restructure their thoughts

3 - Put what has been learnt into a real life situation

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Biofeedback (Budzynski)

  • Biofeedback is simply the ffedback of biological functionings to a patient
  • Visual and audible feedback on the state of the body is given to allow them to monitor their stress levels
  • Allows them to see how their actions are actively affecting their stress levels
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Social Support (Waxler-Morrison)

  • Social networks provide support from friends and family to a patient
  • No therapist is required for social support to affect stress levels
  • It is unclear how social support redcues stress, but it has shown that it does
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