Health and social care unit 4

  • Created by: El mae
  • Created on: 13-05-18 11:11

Life expectancy

An estimate of the number of years that a person can expect to live.

In the UK this is estimated at 79 yeras old for men and 82 years for women, on average.

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Life course

Describes the path of the human life cycle

A map of what is expected to happen at the various stages of the life cycle

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Used to describe an increase in quantity

for example height or weight

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Used to describe changes that might be complex and involve a change in the quality of some ability.

for example social intellectual annd emotional change.

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When development is assumed to be due to genetics

Eg, onset of puberty

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When development is assumed to be due to genetics

Eg, onset of puberty

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Developmental norms/milestones

An average set of expectations of development

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Delayed Development

When a child has not shown developments within expected time frames.

Can be caused by: Brain damage, Poor social interaction, Disease, Visual/hering disability and Poor nutrition.

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Holistic development

The interaction of aspects of development : Physical, Intellectual, Intellectual and Social

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Conception - Physical Development

Egg cell travels from the ovary along the fallopian tube

Just one sperm can fertilise the egg while in the fallopian tube.

Genetic material from sperm joins with genetic material from egg

Only about half of all fertilised eggs develop to become babies.

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Pregnancy - Physical Development

Pregnancy is 40 weeks long

Begins when a sperm fertilises an egg

When the cells attach to the walls of the uterus it becomes an embryo

After 8 weeks - embryo has grown to 3-4cm, has a heartbeat & the beginnings of eyes,ears, mouth, legs and arms.

20 weeks - foetus is about 1/2  birth length

32 weeks - foetus is about 1/2 birth weight

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Birth and infancy - Physical development

New borns must take easily digested food for example the mother's milk to help growth

The have various reflexes - an automatic response

Turn of head towards a touch on the cheek ( rooting )

Grasping of a finger in the hand

Startling - throw hands and arms outwards, arching the back and straightening legs

Walking - make movements as though trying to walk.

Lift head slightly - 0 to 1 months

Pass an object between hands - 6 months

Roll over - 6 months

Crawl - 9 to 10 months

Stand alone - 12 months

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Birth and infancy - Emotional development

Attatchment to carers inbuilt in the baby ( Bowlby 1953 )

Quality of attatchment influences self assumptions

Secure attatchments influences self assumptions.

Secure attatchments provide emotional resources needed to cope with uncertainty

Insecure attatchments give a reduced ability to cope with stress and major events

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Birth and infancy - Intellectual development

Stage 1 : The sensorimotor stage : Birth to 1 - 2 years old.

Thinking without language

Born with the ability to sense objects

Born with some reflexes eg the ability to ****

Thinking is limited to sensing objects and performing objects

No working system for remembering and thinking about the world until 18 months old

3 months - babbling noises - muscles invloved with speech

12 months - Imitate sounds : developmet od single words

2 years - 2 word statments: development of vocabulary

3 years - Simple sentences : further development of vocabulary

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Birth and infancy - Social development

Intercation with carers

2 months - smile at human faces

3 months - respond to adult talk

5 months - distinguish between familiar people and strangers

Emotional attatchment

Later stages - parallel play

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Childhood - Physical development

By 6, a childs head is 90% full size

Reproductive organs remain small until puberty

By 2, children may run and climb stairs

By 4, children may kick and throw a large ball

By 6 or 7, they may skip and ride a bike

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Childhood - Emotional development

The pre-operational stage : 2 -7 years

Pre logical thinking but without understanding logic

Can use words to communicate

Don't really understand number, mass volume, etc

May be able to count but not understand how numbers work/what they mean

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Childhood - Intellectual development

4 years - clear sentenes : some mistakes with grammer

5 years+ - use full adult grammer; vocabulary continues to grow; formal grammer improves

As we get older, our vocabulary continues to improve and our grammer becomes more efficient.

The concrete operational stage: 7-11 years - a stage where logical thinking is liited to practical situations

Can think logically provided issues are ' down to earth ' or concrete

May be able to solve simple logic problems when diagrams/pictures are used.

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Childhood - Social development

Social roles and behaviour within family ( primary socialisation )

Co-operative play with other children

Independance and friendship based on mutual trust

Social networks or circles of friends

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Adolescence - Physical development

Girls generally hit puberty between 11 and 13

Boys generally hit puberty between 13 and 15

 Prepares the body for sexual development

Triggered by the action of hormones

Growth spurts

Girls - Enlargment of breasts, development of pubic hair, increased fat layers, onset of menstruation

Boys- Enlargment of testes and penis, development of pubic and facial hair, increased muscle strength and deeper voices.

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Adolescence - Emotional development

Development of sense of self

Secure sense of identity ( Erikson 1963 ) - needed to form a loving sexual attatchment/feel secure with others

Self-esteem may depend on identity development

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Adolescence - Intellectual development

The formal operational stage: thinking using logic and abstract through processes - adult thinking

11+ years

Can solve complex problems in their head

Adult thinking - using logic and abstract thought

Use concepts and everyday theories to go beyond experince

Thinking scientifically

Think through complex ideas without having to see pictures

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Adolescence - Social development

Self-worth influenced more by friends

Development of sexuality and social transition to full independence

Secondary social learning

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Adulthood - Physical development

Young adults ( 18-28) often at peak performance

Most fertile in twenties/thirties

Older adults tend to lose some strength and speed but could achieve peak fitness if they take up exersize late in life

Use of reading glasses ( 40's )

Difficulty in hearing high-pitched noise

Hair thinning and loss

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Adulthood - Emotional development

Coping with emotional attatchment to a partner ( intimacy )

Stagnation when intrest in social issues is lost

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Adulthood - Social development

Friendship networks important


Marriage and parenthood

Time pressures

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Older adulthood - Physical development

Menopause between 45-55

Greater production of gonadotrophins (hormones) causing irritability, hot flushes and night sweats

Reduction in sex hormones can cause reduction in sex organs and libido

The menopause

Gradual ending of the ability to have children

Causes hot sweats and flushes due to change in hormones

Middle age spread often occurs - weight gain

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Older aduthood - Emotional development

Develop secure sense of self to cope with  changes with ageing/death

People who fail to cope and make snese of their life might experiance emotional despair

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Older adulthood - Social development

After retirement older adults have more free time

They spend more time with friends and family rather than extending their networks of friends

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Final stages of life - Physical development

120 years is the maximum life span

Body cells have a limit and stop renewing themselves

This means we can not stay healthy and repair ourselves

Body systems slow down and body tissue become wasted

This causes death

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Genetic factors

Every cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes

Half from father, half from mother

Genetic patterns are diffrent from both parents, making us each unique

These determine hair and eye colour amongst many other things

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Coeliac disease

Person cannot digest gluten

Gluten causes immune system to attack lining of small intestine

May require dietary control/gluten free diet

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Cystic fibrosis

Caused by defective gene - a damaged gene that doesn't work properly

Leads to production of defective protein causing mucus production in lungs, pancreas and intestines

This causes problems breathing

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Brittle bone disease

Causes increased likelihood of fracturing bones

Often passed on, but can be caused by genetic mutation

Can often be helped by physiotherapy

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Rheumatic disease

Covers wide range of disorders involving inflammation of joints, ligaments, bones and muscles

Rheumatoid arthritis affects approx. 8/1000 in UK - increased risk through genetics

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Airways become swollen

Can be caused by genetics

With most genetic diseases, people can normally lead a healthy life but their needs may differ

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Biological factors

Often influential before birth eg, mothers who smoke often give birth to babies of lower birth rates

Drugs and alcohol can also influence the development of the baby in the womb

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Foetal alcohol syndrome

Mothers who drink large quantities of alcohol

Children tend to be smaller

Tend to have smaller heads than usual

Children may have heart problems and learning difficulties

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Infections during pregnancy

Eg rubella( german measles ) ; cytomegalovirus ( herpes-type)

Rubella can cause impaired hearing/eyesight or heart damage

Cytomegalovirus can cause deafness and learning difficulties

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Effects of diet

You will be affected by what your mother ate during pregnancy

If your mum's diet is high in fat and sugar you will have increased cholesterol and a risk of heart disease

Malnutrition or a lack of healthy food during pregnancy could lead to poor health for the child

Pregnant women should have a healthy balanced diet when pregnant

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Environmental factors- Pollution

Air and water - mojor source of ill-health

Lack of sanitation/sewers - cholera

Lead of pollution from petrol fumes

Air pollution from busy roads

Chemical pollution may damage developing brains- chemicals used in household products

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Higher income- more choice, higher mortgage

Low income - rent in densely populated areas

Poor quality housing - poorer health - damp, cold, non-safety glass, poor maintenance.

Poor quality housing can lead to 

  • Pollution from nearby traffic
  • Dampness and the risk of allergies
  • Poor facilities such as parking and shops
  • Stress from overcrowding including noise, lack of privacy
  • Poor heating and ventilation in the winter
  • Increased risk of crime
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Access to recreational facilities

Low income can restrict travel

2007 - 92% high income had access to home computer

54% of low income hoouseholds did not have access to a car

Difficulty accessing information - only 25% with internet

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Barriers to accessing leisure facilities

  • Money - memberships of sports clubs depend on income
  • Travel - many people find it difficult to travel with no car
  • Time - people with demanding jobs have reduced time for leisure activities
  • Location - some activities may involve travel
  • Information - people with low incomes have limited access to newspapers and internet
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Discrimination has a negative impact - influence on development

Bullying threatens self-confidence, causing stress, anxiety and depression

Many children experiance it in school

Bullying is : when an individual or group of people intimidate or harass others

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What bullying can involve

  • Theft of property
  • Physical violence or assult
  • Verbal insults
  • False stories being shared about you
  • Interfering with personal possessions such as school work
  • eceiving abusive messages
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Access to heath and social care services

Low income areas have poorer facilities than more wealthy areas

Some groups of people may not receive the same quality of care

Low income areas have greter difficulty in recruiting GPs and nurses

People with no internet have limited access to NHS direct

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Family dysfunction

Group of people related genetically or by marriage

1. Extended - diffrent generations live together/near each other

2. Nuclear - parents and children

3. Reconstituted - children not all biologically related to both adults

4. Lone parent - one parent with children

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A well functioning family provides

First emotional attatchments

First experiance of social interaction

Influence view of socially acceptable

What we assume to be normal

Setting to meet physical needs

Emotional support/protect from stress

Financial/practical help

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A dysfunctional family

This is a family that does not work well

Family members may become stressed because of health problems, poot housing or low incomes

Some adults may have poor parenting skills

Some may have aggressive or manipulative ways

Others may neglect their children

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Culture and beliefs

Culture is the collection of values, beliefs, customs and behaviours that make groups of people distinctive

Children learn customs associated with family's culture during childhood

We now live in a multi-cultural society

People identify withothers over the internet

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Socio-economic factors

Socio economic facotrs are factors that relate to both people and money

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Income and expenditure

Income comes from wages, profits, benifits, investments, property sales

Income is taxed - the government takes necessary money

Poorer people can caim benefits

Low income people tend to be - lone-parents, unemployed, elderly, sick/disabled, single earners, unskilled couples.

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Social class, income and employment

Occupation determines social class

Link between occupation and health - higher birth weights in higher classes

Higher income = better living conditions, more ecpensive homes and better lifestyle choices

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Impact of low income

  • Less chance of travel
  • Poor diet
  • Poor housing - more risk of illness
  • Low self confidnece
  • Less chance of having the latest technology
  • Parents who feel stressed by money worry
  • Exposure to pollution
  • Less access to books and computers to help with homework
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Schools in deprived areas more liklet to suffer problems than those in affluent areas ( Acheson Report 1998 )

Children in higher social classes achieve more than twice A-C GCSE grades

Higher social classes tend to continue into higher education

Lack of qualifications - low income

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Media/peer groups

Newspapers, radio, TV, internet, adverts, magazines, posters

Peers can influece most lifestyle choices

Peer group is a group of people our own age

Provide 2nd source of learniing after 1st source of family

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Values and attitudes

Attitudes: assumptions that we use to make sense of out social experiance

Values: principles that we use to guide our thoughts and decisions

Your values and attitudes will be impacted by your life experiances

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Lifestyle factors

Lifestyle is how someone spends time and money to create a way of living

Livestyle factors include 

  • Nutrition and diet
  • Exersize
  • Stress
  • Substance abuse
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Nutrition and diet

Low income may mean less healthy diet

Normally due to cost - more processed food is cheaper

This means that are prone to obesity, have reduced birth weights and are less liklet to breastfeed

Cost of travelling to supermarkets so they cant stock up on cheaper foods

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Substance abuse


65% men, 49% women exceed government recommendations for alcohol consumption


14% men, 8% women taken illegal drugs in previous year; cannabis use more common


Heart and lung disease; smoking is associated with socio-economic class; manual occupations tend to smoke more

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Major life events

Predictable and unpreidctable life events

Some life choices are chosen or predicted

Others are unpredicted - didn't know they would happen

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Predicatble life events

Starting school/nursery - Learning to make new friends - Feeling unsafe, withdrawing from others. Loss of support from parents

Beginning and chaning employment - Choosing a work role and gaving an income - Feeling pressured by new demands on time and mental energy. Loss of previous lifestyle

Leaving home - Achieving independence - Feeling unable to cope with a new situation

Leaving prison - Coping with freedom and choice - Possible loss of independence

Marriage- Making emotional attatchments and experiancing intimacy - Possible loss of independance

Parenthood - Attachment to infant. Learning parenting - Disruption of previous lifestyle

Retirement - Controlling own life and disengaging from work - Loss of previous work roles, difficulty establishing a new lifestyle.

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Unpredictable life events

Birth of a sibling - Learning to make new emotional attatchments - Jealousy and rivalry

Redundancy - Learning to adapt to changes in income and lifestyle - Refusal to accept change. Anger or deppression

Illness and serious injury - Learning to adapt with physical change - Greif at loss of health. Anger or deppression

Divorce - Learning to cope with a new lifestyle - Grief, faliure to adapt to a new lifestyle

Bereavement - Learning to cope with loss - Grief and faliure to adapt

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Major life events

Many of these life events involve some kind of change and many involve a loss

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Reciprocal influence

Reciprocal - goes both ways

Make responses to environment we are in

Eg respond to poverty by smoking, drinking, taking drugs. Damages health, increases problems with debt

The whole thing is an interactive process and can be a 'vicious circle'

You can influence your own environment it is down to choices we make

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Regular exesize helps prevent heart disease, prolongs life

May help to combat depression 

Some people spend more time on socialising and cereer - little time to exersize

Cultural factors - exersize of little importance

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Low income - pressure when budgeting

Debt causes stress

Work pressures/gaining qualifications

Relationships and poor health

Key is to feel in control

Influenced by socio-econommic factors

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Socio-economic factors




Peer groups


Social class, income and employment

Income and expenditure

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Nature- genetic and biological influences

Nurture- social, economic and environmental influences

Determinism- belief that our future is fixed

Choice and interaction - belief that we can take control of our own life through choices

Our development depends on the interaction of nature, nurture and our individual behaviour

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Socio economic factors

Low income and its impact





Access to leisure and recreational facilities

Access to health and social care services

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Wider social group

Religious community

Neighbourhood community

School community

May have influenced parents' and your own attitudes/beliefs

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Gender roles - social and cultural expectations about the ways men and women should behave

Still a gender pay gap - women earn 82% of mens earnings ( 2004 )

Social expectations still influence views

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Access to services

Low income households may have poorer facilities in local areas

Life expectancy in poorer areas lower

NHS provides free care - diffrences in quality of care

Access to car - difficulty in visiting GP

Access to internet - eg NHS direct 

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Theories of ageing

1. Disengagement theory

Older people withdraw from social contact. Disengage due to reduced physical health and loss of social opportunities ( ******* and Henry, 1961 )

2. Continuity theory

Older people maintain a continuous sense of who they are and continue to adapt the self concept developed earlier in life

3. Activity theory

Older people need to stay mentally and physically active to limit the risks associated with disengagement ( Bromley, 1966 )

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Disengagement theory

This theory was put forward by ******* and Henry in 1961

Withdrawing from involvment with people or activities

Older people become more 'individual'

Disengagement a natural part of ageing

Losing contact with people is an inevitable consequence of biological decline 

Disengagement is a natural and appropriate response

However many older people are closer to family ( Zimbardo, 1992 )

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Issues that limit social interaction

  • Ill-health- poor mobility, hearing/sight problems - interaction more difficult
  • Geographical mobility - retirement away from family/friends
  • Retirement - less contact with colleagues
  • Friends/relatives - reduced social contact due to poor mobility/disabilities
  • Travel/technology - car, internet, mobile
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Activity theory

Developed by Bromley in 1966

He argued that:

Older people needed to stay active to prevent disengagement

Elderly should be educated to make use of facilities

Encoraged to drop fixed habits and try new things

Activity needed to prevent isolation, apathy and inaction

Remain mentally active and maintain intrest in life and others' company

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Physically active




'keep fit'


If people have enjoyed running,squash etc they may continue these activities

Day/residential care may have tailored programs including physiotherapy

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Mentally active

May be that mental abilities weaken due to nerve cell connections weakening

Lack of mental activity may lead to depression, depression may cause physically inactivity

Lack of physical exersize may damage health

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Staying mentally active

Studying/taking courses ( for pleasure )

Joining community activities eg book clubs - discussion activities

Leisure activities that are social

Crosswords/puzzles - thinking skills

Conversations/discussions with friends

Day/residential care - reminiscence

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Continuity theory

Atchley ( 1989 ) - stresses importance of continuing as the person you've always been

Continuing with intrests, lifestyles and social contacts

Continue to develop internal sense of self-esteem and self concept

People will have diffrent needs when it comes to activity

Some people candisengage without losing sense of who they are

Some people need to stay activley involved with people/hobbies to feel life is worthwhile

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Provision for the elderly

The majority of older people remain in thieir own home and community supported by family and friends

Day care centres provide a social setting where people can meet

Residential care is where they can access 24 hour care

Must respect diffrent needs of individuals and older people should alwyas have a choice

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Physical changes when ageing

Skin, bone, joints and muscles

  • Skin becomes thinner and weinkled
  • Bones become less dense and more likley to fracture
  • Joints become stiffer
  • Loss of height
  • Muscles become weaker


  • Sense of balance becomes impaired
  • Ability to tase and smell deteriorates
  • Vision deteriorates
  • Hearing can deteriorate


  • Heart becomes less efficient
  • Blood pressures rise
  • Nutrients from food are not absorbed as well
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Hormones and the menopause

Women experiance a decrease in hormones

This can increase the chance of osteoporosis - weakening of the bones

Exersize may help to prevent this

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Cardiovascular system

This is to do with theheart pumping blood around the body

Arteries narrow making it harder for blood to pass through

The heart has to work harder

Often arteries become blocked - causing heart attacks

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Respiratory system

This is to do with the lungs and breathing

The strength of the chest muscles reduce with age so lungs are not as efficient

Emphysema may occur:  The air sacs in the lungs become damaged and this causes shortness of breath and oxygen isn't delivered to the muscles as fast as it should be.

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Nervous system

Loss of nerve cells

Motor neurone disease

This is a disease that causes nerves to degenerate, reluting in weakness and loss of muscle tissue

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After 45, the eye's ability to focus becomes weaker

By 65 there may be little ability to focus - small print becomes more difficult to read

Cataracts caused by changes to the lens - become hard/cloudy - stops light transmission - blurred vision ( most people over 75 are diabetics which causes development of cataracts )

Glaucoma - increase in fluid pressure

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Difficulty in hearing high pitched ( frequency ) sounds

Sensitivity of nerve cells in inner ear decreases

Loss of nerve cells - hearing loss

Increase in wax can block sound transmission

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Cognitive changes

Loss of nerve cells in the brain, reduction of ability of nerves to ransmit electrical signals

Memory recall becomes a problem, not logical reasoning

May take longer to respond to questions, response time also slows down

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Musculoskeletal system

This is the muscles and bone working together

Reduction/shrinkage of muscle tissue - due to cell death

Arthritis - damage to joints as cartilage thins/wears away ( osteoarthritis ) 

Osteoporosis - thinning/weakning of bones - fracture more easily - more common in women due to role of oestrogen

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Approx. 5% over 65 have dementia

Maybe 20% over 80 have demetia

Causes damage to structure and chemistry of brain

Problems with understanding, communication, reasoning, finding their way and recent memory

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Motor neurone disease

Rare, usually between 50-70 year olds

 Causes nerves to degenerate - wekness and loss of muscles tissue

Genetic inheritance

Exposure to toxic chemicals may increase risk

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Psychological changes

Some people disengage from social activity, many remain in contact with friends/family

Erik Erikson ( 1963 ) - develop 'ego integrity' to avoid despair later - this invloves making sense of your life

Ego integrity - making sense of your life - holding onto clear sense of who you are ( self-esteem )

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Ageing - negatives

Effects of retirement

Loss of partner

Role changes

Loss of peers


Financial concerns

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Ageing - positives

Effects of retirment

Role changes

Learning for pleasure

Leisure pursuits


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