Health and Social Care Unit 2 Learning Aim A

  • Created by: Uzma
  • Created on: 10-03-19 08:41

Name 4 Healthcare & 3 Social care Settings


1. Hospitals: go for treatment doctor cannot provide

2. Clinics: go to be treated for specific medical conditions 

3. Home: care at home for housebound people who are recovering from medical illness

4. GP Surgeries/local health centres: go first for medical advice from the GP


1. Domiciliary care: social care workers provide care for people in own home (help with independence)

2. Residential care & Respite: people can't be looked after or cannot cope on their own are looked after

3. Daycare centres: provide respite care and used by older people with physical or learning disabilities

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Setting and Treatment

1. Patient attends appointment with GP. Discusses problem and GP uses equipment to diagnose problem

2. Doctors refers patient to a specialist at the hospital

3. Specialist examines patient and then sees if in need of operation or medication 

4. Month after of medication or operation patient may remain at hospital and monitored, after rehabilitation patient may go to nurse at GP to check progress

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Policies & procedures & Daily responsibilies

Following Policies & Procedures in work setting:

  • ensure health & safety of service users & hsc workers
  • support ay to day routines 
  • enable needs & preferences of service users are met 
  • promote independence 

Daily Responsibilities:

  • following policies & procedures 
  • healing & supporting recovery 
  • assessment, care & support planning (service user & family)
  • supporting daily routines of service user
  • enabling rehabilitation 
  • providing equipment & adapting to encourage independence 
  • providing personal care
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Monitoring care internally & externally

Internal monitoring: staff have responsibility for other colleagues & ensuring they deliver quality care

Internal monitor roles: 

  • lead nurse: in charge of group of wards
  • doctors: medical consultants who oversee diagnosis 
  • healthcare assistants: qualified nurses to meet care need

External monitoring: organisations that are external to care setting use codes of practice & regulations to givern how hsc workers carry out roles


external bodies monitor services through inspections these cover:

  • analysis of internal data & trends 
  • investigation of complaints 
  • observation of service delivery 
  • collection of service user feedback
  • interviews with staff 
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Working in partnerships


  • improves information sharing between professionals 
  • improves effciency of care system as a whole (joined-up working)
  • helps service user feel they are treated as a whole person (holistic care
  • improves planning & commisioning of care 


  • cuts in funding prevent effective partnership working
  • lack of coordination of hsc services, people don't recieve care they need 
  • failure to communicate information between services 
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Accessing support from specialist agencies

Age UK - provide services to promote health & wellbeing of older people 

Mind - provide advice and support for people with mental health problems & campaign to raise awarenesss and improve services 

YoungMind - improve mental health of children & young people through individual support & improve services 

Royal National Institute of Blind People (RNIB) - support people affected by sight loss, visually impaired & blind

Alzheimers's Society - provides info & support people with dementia, families & carers. Funds research & promotes awareness 

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Holistic Approaches

Holistic approach: takes account person's wider needs (PIES) to meet needs & promote health & wellbeing


  • care is personalised 
  • other issues contribute to health e.g stress, poor housing
  • being viewed as 'whole person' than medical problem can improve general wellbeing 


  • people want particular illness or symptom treated
  • generally, doctors don't look for other issues during diagnosis
  • hsc workers aren't employed or skilled to manage aspects of needs


  • express views & concerns 
  • defend and promote service users rights and responsibilities 
  • access info & services
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Empowering Individual

promoting individualised care: enables service user to understands the chocie thay can make, can contirbute in decision-making & take control their lives

  • empowering can provide their rights to dignity & independence which will boost their self-esteem
  • health & care provision in multi cultural society must address backgrounds, beliefs, traditions, languages and diets


  • if service users speaks little english or no english, information must be given in their language (translator may be necessary), can have signers, advocates, family or friends
  • provide wide range of foods with different religious requirements
  • religious observance: e.g muslims prayer room, roman catholic may want to attend Mass on sundays 
  • promote choice & rights: e.g religious or cultural values, such as Jehovahs witness may believe in blood tranfusion but child may need it
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Religious & cultural differences

Kosher foods:

  • dairy & meat separated, meat is slaughtered causing least pain 


  • gluten is a type of starch
  • foods include: fruit,veg, fish, seeds, rice, potato


  • to do with milk 
  • soya milk, almond milk

Halal foods: 

  • halal foods are meat that is sacrificed in a specific way.
  • food such as prok, alcohol is forbidden in Islam

Vegan & Vegatarian 

  • vegan don't have animal products including dairy but vegatarians only don't eat meat
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Providing equipment & adaptions (independence)

Equipment to increase mobility

  •  walking stick 
  • stair lifts 
  • motorised transport 

Appliances that support daily living activities:

  • special cutlery with thick, light handles 
  • bathing aids, walk in baths & showers
  • raised toilet seats 

providing personal care - washing, toileting & feeding 

  • non-slip mats
  • female, male urinals 
  • adapted taps 
  • hand rails 
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Safeguarding regulations

Safeguarding Regulations: protects service users from harm, abuse & neglect & promotes health & wellbeing

Examples of safeguarding:

  • ensure DBS declaration for staff
  • ensure assessment of children & appropriate action
  • residential care setting, use hoists to help residents
  • hospitals, make sure equipment is sterile 

Safeguarding children:  Children Act 2003 requires local authorities to have LSCB (Local safeguarding children board)

Role is to:

  • make sure all agencies that are part of LSCD do the best job
  • listen to children's views & ideas
  • look into cases where children are badly hurt or died

Safeguarding adults: Care Act 2014 introduced safeguarding duties for LA 

  • leading mutli-agency local adult safeguarding system 
  • arranging provision of indpendent advocates
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Dealing with conflict

When dealing with conflict care practitioners need to:

  • stay calm
  • never resort to agressive behaviour 
  • listen carefully 
  • try and see both sides to arguement 

If leads to violence then:

  • make sure aware of where closed door & exit points are
  • remove anything could be used as weapon 
  • allow personal space 
  • ask for help if possible 
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Anti-discriminatory practice

Discrimination: treated unfairly or unequally because of who they are

Types of discrimination:

Direct: treating someone differently because of their characteristics

Indirect: when an organisation's practice, policy or rule has a worse effect one someone than others

Examples of anti-discriminatory practice in hsc:

  • longer appointments for those with LD
  • leaflets in many languages
  • access to buildings

Equality Act 2010 - Protects people from discrimination by;

  • schools, colleges
  • healthcare providers: hospitals & care homes
  • public bodies: government departments & local authorities 
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Data Protection Act (1998)

Data Protection: controls personal data used by organisations, businesses or government.

Data must be used:

  • used fairly & lawfully 
  • used for limited and stated purposes
  • used in way that is relevant 
  • accurate 
  • keep for no longer than needed

Data that employer in hsc can keep about employees:

  • name, address, date of birth, gender
  • NI number & tax code 
  • employment history & work experience 
  • any details of known disability 
  • education & qualificaions 
  • emergency contact details
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Report & Complaint Procedures

Four key points about complaint procedures:

1. All care setting must have them in place

2. All care setting must enable service users to access and use them 

3. They are checked when care providers are inspected

4. Lead to service improvements

Barriers to incident reporting:

  • incident form too long 
  • staff may not know about reporting procedures
  • pressure from managers not to report incidents

Problems with evidence

  • lack of detail in statements
  • poor recall of events 
  • low standard of English written
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Assessment & care planning

Care planning cycle

  • Assess the client’s need
  • plan & agree most appropriate care
  • implement care plan
  • monitor the effectiveness of plan
  • review and evaluate the effectiveness of plan
  • amend the plan

Approach involves:

  • assessing needs of service user
  • agreeing care plan promotes service user's health & wellbeing 
  • evaluating effectiveness of care implemented 

cyclinal process, interventation & changes may be introduced at any point

professionals will assess & agree appropriate care with service user & where appropriate with family

informal carers contribute to reviews & evaluations of care provison & discussions about alternative strategies

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Ensuring safety in hsc settings

Risk assessments:

- Health & Safety at Work Act: governs requirements for employers & employees to ensure they maintain safe working environment 

Employers must:

  • ensure that organisation has health & safety policy 
  • undertake risk assesment to idenitfy risk & hazards & take action to reduce likeliness of harm 
  • provide up-to-date info on health & safety issues 
  • provide health & safety equipment to carry out procedures & treatments
  • provide health & safety training 
  • records of all incidents are kept
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Control from infection & harmful substances


  • wash hands before started work, eating, after using toilet and if body is in contact with clinical waste, body fluids or dirty linen
  • alcohol hand rubs are effective to protect from contamination 
  • safe handling & disposal of sharp objects such as needles & syringes to avoid needle-stick injuries & ensure infection isn't passed on
  • cleaning equipment and wearing protective clothing

Control & disposal of substances harmful to health:

  • protect service user, staff, visitor they must ensure that hazardous waste is disposed

COSHH Control of substances hazardous to health:

  • provide guidance approved by Health & Safety Executive for safe disposal of waste
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Risk Assessment

Identifying & evaluating possible consequences of hazards & level of risk that will cause harm

Employees must: 

  • take care of own safety and others in setting
  • cooperate with employer to carry out agreed & required health & safety procedures in setting
  • not intentionally damage health & safety equipment at setting e.g lift or hoist

Most unlikey to happen - very likely to happen 

Provision of first aid facilities 

  • governed by Health and Safety regulations 
  • provision should be adequate & appropriate 
  • Sep 2016 all newly qualified early-years practitioners will be required to complete paediatric first-aid training 
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Information management & communication

Legal workplace requirements 

  • Profossional bodies that embed codes of practices and regulate health and care staff such as GMC, NMC, HCPC 

If staff spot weaknesses in procedure they should feel confident & suggest improvements

  • important to ensure safety & security of service users & respect right to confidentiality 


  • monitor level & content of initial education & training of members of profession
  • ongoing professional development & requirement to keep up to date, complete further training
  • standards of professional practice of everday work
  • standards of personal conduct, both work & lesuire time
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Accountability to professional organisation

Codes of professional conduct 

  • professional organisation publish codes of practice for memebrs which must be followed
  • professional organisation's regulations outline formal procedures that would be used following complaint of professional practice of members

Revalidation procedures

each professional bodies require members to complete CPD to remain on register & this includes:

  • training on new equipment, new procedures or treatments, providing evidence that registered person reviews & learns from own practice

Safeguarding regulations, raising concerns and whistleblowing 

Care certificate: for newly appointed workers that are not members of professional bodies GMC, NMC, HCPC

  • provide identiified set of standards that hsc workers should follow in daily working life
  • replaces the common induction standards (CIS) & National Minimum training standards (NMTS) 
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Stages of reporting incidents & accidents

Stages of reporting incidents & accidents

  • 1. Detect incident or accident 
  • 2. Record incident or accident 
  • 3. Report incident or accident to relevant person
  • 4. Classify incident or accident to type and severity
  • 5. Priortise issues for appropriate actions
  • 6. Propose preventative measures 
  • 7. Implement changes to working practices
  • 8. Monitor effectiveness of changes in preventing future incidents 

Problems with evidence

  • incosistent witness statement
  • lack of detail in statement 
  • poor recall of events
  • written evidence that conflicts with types of evidence
  • low standards of written English
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Key words

Preventative care: care & education that aims to ensure people are healthy & aware of factors that lead to illness 

Consultant: senior doctor, provides specialist expert healthcare support

Antenatal care: care provided for mother & baby before birth 

Postnatal care: care provided for mother and baby after birth

Policies: detailed description of approach, often followed by procedures 

Procedures: written instruction that outline the expected & required routines that staff must follow

Self help groups: groups of people who share common issue they want to address 

Rehabilitation: process restoring a person to good health, accident, illness, recovery from addiction


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Key words

Complementary therapies: treatments designed to treat whole person than symptoms of disease

Conventional medial treatment: system of treating individual symptoms and disease through drugs, radiation, surgery

Code of practice: standards of behaviour & professional practice of health & care practitioners set & monitored by PB 

Lone workers' policy: guidence & procedures aimed at ensuring proplr working own their own are safe 

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