Health and social care unit 1 revision



Physical development

Intellectual development

Emotional development

Social development

These are the 4 main developments that everyone  has and plays a key role in managing life.  These will allow others to know how you develop and what stages you have met (millstones)

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What is growth and development?

Growth is something that has grown or is still growing. For example babies.

Development is an event constituting a new stage in a changing situation. For example the way in which we see the world. This is based on how we learn and grow through the environment in which we have lived in.

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Life events

Expected life events

  • starting school
  • Moving house
  • Getting a job 
  • Getting married

Unexpected life events

  • Death 
  • Accidents/injuries
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  • Growth spurt
  • Breast develop
  • Pubic hair
  • Period


  • Enlargment  of penis, testes, prostate gland, and seminal vesicles
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Life stages

Infancy (0-2)

Early childhood (3-7)

Adolescence (8-18)

Early adulthood (19-45)

Middle adulthood (45-65)

Later adulthood (65+)

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  • As a behaviorist Skinner developed the theory of operant conditioning.
  • This is the idea that behavior is determined by its consequences.
  • This is shown by reinforcements or punishments, which makes it more or less likely that the behavior will happen again.
  • Skinner also believed that children learn through imitation by copying how others act around them.
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Children watch the people around them behaving in many ways. This is shown by the BoBo Doll experiment (Bandura, 1961). In society, children are surrounded by many influential role models such as parents and teachers at school.These role models provide examples of behavior to observe and imitate, e.g., masculine and feminine.

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Jean Piaget theory of cognitive development suggests that children move through four different stages of mental development. His theory focuses not only on understanding how children acquire knowledge, but also on understanding the nature of intelligence. 

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Vygotsky's ideas:

  • zone of proximal development(ZPD)
  • social interaction 
  • sharing experiences through conections with people 
  • scafforlding 
  • socio-cultural interaction
  • cognetive development
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Constructivist theory (Jerome Bruner) A major theme in the theoretical framework of Bruner is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current or past knowledge.

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Noam Chomsky's Theory is Of universal grammar. In the 1960s, linguist Noam Chomsky proposed a revolutionary idea. That we are all born with an innate knowledge of grammar that serves as the basis for all language acquisition. In other words, for humans, language is a basic instinct. One key role is social interaction.

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