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LIFE STAGES

Infancy                     (0-2 years)

Early Childhood         (3-8 years)

Adolescence             (9-18 years)

Early Adulthood        (19-45 years)

Middle Adulthood      (46-65 years)

Later Adulthood        (65+ years)

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WHAT DOES PIES STAND FOR?

P=  Physical Development

I=    Intellectual Development

E=   Emotional Development

S=   Social Development

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WHAT DOES PIES MEAN?

Physical Development:  growth and other physical changes that happen to our body throughout life.

Intellectual Development:  the development of language, memory and thinking skills.

Emotional Development:   the ability to cope with feelings about ourselves and towards others.

Socail Development:   the ability to form friendships and relationships and to learn to be independent.

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Growth and physiological change?

The term growth describes an increase in height and weight. Growth continues until EARLY ADULTHOOD.

The term physiological change describes the physical changes that take place throughout the life stages.

1)   Infancy/early childhood: Children grow rapidly and develop many physical skills. 

2)   Adolescent:  The body continues to develop. There may be GROWTH SPURTS. Bodies will change as they reach SEXUAL MATURITY.

3)   Young adult: The body has reached PHYSICAL MATURITY.

4)   Older adult:  The AGEING PROCESS begins in middle adulthood.

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KEY TERMS?

GROWTH SPURTS: periods of fast growth

SEXUAL MATURITY: when an individual’s reproductive organs are fully matured

PHYSICAL MATURITY: when an individual reaches their full height and the peak of physical tness

AGEING PROCESS: by about 65, individuals will have lost some strength and muscle tone

Menopause:  The MENOPAUSE is experienced by women. It can begin at any time during middle adulthood and may take several years. PHYSIOLOGICAL (or physical) changes during menopause include the gradual ending of menstruation and shrinkage of the sexual organs. Symptoms include hot ushes and night sweats.

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WHAT IS GROSS MOTOR SKILLS AND EXAMPLES OF IT?

Gross motor skills allow infants to control large muscles in the body to enable them to crawl, walk and run, for example 

-Push-and-pull toys

-Ride-on toys

-Climbing frames

-Playing catch 

-Riding a bike

-Hopscotch

-Digging

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WHAT IS FINE MOTOR SKILLS AND EXAMPLES OF IT?

Fine motor skills allow infants and young children to control and coordinate their hands and fingers.

                                              Examples of fine motor skills:

MANIPULATING: At first, babies use their whole hand to manipulate objects. By 12 months, they are starting to use the small muscles in their fingers.

GRIPPING By one month, babies can grasp an adult’s finger. By three months, they can grasp a rattle for a short time.

HAND–EYE COORDINATION This child is able to use the muscles in her fingers to pick up the construction piece and use her eyes to guide her finger movements.

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Physical development in adolescence?

Adolescence is the life stage between the ages of 9 and 18 years. 

Puberty During - adolescence, young people experience a period of change called PUBERTY. This starts when the brain releases chemicals called HORMONES.

Reaching new heights - During the adolescence life stage, a young person’s height can increase rapidly over a short period of time – this is known as a growth spurt

Changes to primary sexual characteristics - PRIMARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS are present at birth. Examples include the ovaries, ******, testes and penis. They are necessary for reproduction. During puberty, hormones cause the sexual and reproductive organs to mature

Changes to secondary sexual characteristics - SECONDARY SEXUAL CHARACTERISTICS appear during puberty. They are caused by changes to the height and shape of the body, and distinguish the two sexes. Examples are the female breasts and facial hair for males. Secondary sexual characteristics are not necessary for reproduction

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Primary and secondary sexual characteristics for m

                                                Male sexual characteristics:

                        PRIMARY                                                            

• Penis enlarges

• Prostate gland produces secretions

• Testes enlarge and produce sperm

                             SECONDARY

• Growth of facial hair

• Growth of armpit hair/pubic hair

• Increased muscle and strength

• Growth spurt

• Voice box (larynx) grows so the voice deepens (breaks)

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Primary and secondary sexual characteristics for f

                                              Female sexual characteristics

                        PRIMARY:

• Uterus and ****** grow

• Ovulation and menstrual periods begin

                           SECONDARY:

• Enlargement of breasts

• Growth of armpit hair/pubic hair

• Increased fat layers under the skin

• Growth spurt

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Physical development in early adulthood?

People reach physical maturity at about 19, as they reach early adulthood. During middle adulthood, they begin the ageing process.

                                     Physical characteristics: 

• Physically mature

• Reach full height and strength

• Have developed sexual characteristics and are able to reproduce

• Women are at their most fertile

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Physical development in middle adulthood?

                                           Physical characteristics

• Begin to show signs of ageing, such as greying hair

• Begin to lose muscle tone and strength

• Body shape may change with an increase in weight

• Men may notice hair loss

• For women menstruation ends, they are no longer able to have children

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Physical development in later adulthood?

                                     Physical characteristics:

• Ageing process continues with further strength and muscle loss

• Stamina reduces

• Mobility (gross motor skills) and dexterity ( ne motor skills) become more dif cult

• May experience some loss of hearing and eyesight

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WHAT IS INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXAMPLES OF I

Intellectual/cognitive development is about how individuals organise their ideas and make sense of the world around them. 

                                      Types of intellectual development:

needed to work things out and make predictions about what might happen.

MORAL DEVELOPMENT – needed for reasoning and making choices about how to act towards self and others

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WHAT IS INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT AND EXAMPLES OF I

Intellectual/cognitive development is about how individuals organise their ideas and make sense of the world around them. 

                                      Types of intellectual development:

PROLEM SOLVING- needed to work things out and make predictions about what might happen.

MORAL DEVELOPMENT – needed for reasoning and making choices about how to act towards self and others.

LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT – essential to organise and express thoughts.

MEMORY – essential for storing and recalling information

ABSTRACT THOUGHT and CREATIVE THINKING – essential for thinking and discussing things that can’t be observed

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Stages of intellectual development?

1)  Infancy and the early years are stages of rapid intellectual development.

2)  Intellectual development continues throughout the life stages.

3) Thinking skills and short-term memory may decline in later adulthood.

4) Older people may experience dementia, which is an illness affecting the brain that causes memory loss.

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Language development in infancy?

                                                         0–3 months:

• Makes mouth movements at 6 weeks

• Responds by gurgling

• Cries to ask for food or comfort

                                                    6–12 months:

• Understands some words such as ‘bye bye’

• Makes sounds such as ‘ba ba’ or ‘ga ga’

• Can give an object when asked

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Language development in infancy?

                                                         18 months:

• Uses a small number of words (about six to ten) to communicate

• Repeats what others say

• Can follow instructions

                                                           2 years:

• Can link two words together (for example, ‘mine car’)

• By 2 and a half years, knows about 200 words

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Language development in early childhood?

                                              3 years:

• Speech is clearer

• Uses simple sentences

• Begins to ask questions

                                               4 years:

• Speaks in sentences

• May use incorrect form of word such as ‘I goed’

                                              8 years:

• Develops independent reading skills

• Uses complex sentences

• Can reason and explain

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Language development in Adolescence?

                                                      9–18 years:

• Continues to develop vocabulary

• Uses language to discuss abstract ideas; for example, using imagination to explore new ideas.

                     Opportunities for promoting language development for adolescence:

             Adolescents need to:

- Take part in group projects

- Discuss ideas

- Read a wide range of books and materials

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Promoting language development in early childhood?

                                       Young children need to: 

- Take part in group activities (cooking or water play)

- Play imaginatively (shopping or home play)

- Share stories and rhymes

- Play word games and riddles

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Promoting language development in early childhood?

                                       Young children need to: 

- Take part in group activities (cooking or water play)

- Play imaginatively (shopping or home play)

- Share stories and rhymes

- Play word games and riddles

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Comments

Jazzyb378

infancy:0-2

Early childhood:3-8

Adolescence:9-18

Early adulthood:19-45

Middle adulthood:46-65

Later adulthood:65+

rebecca123344

hello

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