Harmony in the 1st movement

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  • Created by: nfawre
  • Created on: 29-05-15 20:57

Introduction

  • Bars 1 and 2: D and A used to establish the the D major chord, they are all root chords.
  • Bars 3-6:The range narrows from 4 octaves increasing the intensity. Inversions of the Tonic and Dominant are used creating more complex harmony. There is ambiguity as to whether we are in D major or D minor, but C#s and Fnaturals are added to fully establish D minor. Then Haydn introduces a Cnatural and Bflat as well as lots of Fs which therefore hints at the relative major F (bar 6)
  • Bars 7-8: Original melodic theme played in F major so the tonic and dominant of this key are played. Other than that, everything in bars 1 and 2 apply.
  • Bars 9-13: Ic and V7 in D minor are played at the end of this section leading to a chord I in bar 14. It only returns to D minor at the end of Bar 13, the rest of Bars 9-13 are in F major.
  • Bars 14-16: Original fanfare idea returns in D minor in bar 14, it is identical to Bar 1. However unlike previously there is a drop to the 4th not the 5th. The 4th beat of bar 15 is a chord of Eflat major which is distinctive. This works as a neapolitan chord (a major chord built on the lowered supertonic of a key, wich is usually minor but this is not imperative). This adds harmonic colour. In Bar 16 there is a Ic V imperfect cadence followed by a pause (i.e Bar 17).
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Exposition

  • First half of the first subject (bars 17-32) : The first 8 bars end in an imperfect cadence and the second 8 bars end in a perfect cadence.
  • Second half of the first subject (bars 33-50): Like first half it is built from 2 bar segments and for the first 8 bars this is built over the tonic note. I and Ic are used to harmonise the 8 bars. The harmony is purely diatonic but Haydn then breaks the rules by adding an A# in a B minor chord (Bar 41). This adds colour to the harmony. It becomes more exuberant and this is partly assisted by the fast harmonic rhythm with two chords per bar.
  • Transition section (bars 51-64): The music is progressing towards the dominant key of D major i.e A major and therefore there are lots of Es-the secondary dominant. The transition is subtely done with confusing accidentals such as A# and D# but by Bar 57 it has become very clear that we are moving to A.
  • First hald of the second subject (bars 66-81): The second subject modulates to the dominant. Bars 74-81 are similar to 26-33 but the phrase is enriched by chromaticisms . These include an F#major7 chord in Bar 77 which is the dominant 7th chord of the secondary dominant B. This therefore wants to resolve to a B major chord but instead we get a Bmajor7. In Bars 80-81 the cadence is Ic V7 VI- an interupted cadence.
  • Second half of the second subject (bars 81-125): The tutti passage in Bar 87 reflects Bar 33 and uses the same I IVc I chordal structure. At Bar 92 there is a dominant pedal which is preparing the way for a perfect cadence in Bars 99-100. A Bar 112 there is another tutti section which again uses I IVc I. There is a concise flourish repeated over the dominant pedal and a perfect cadence which culminates the exposition section.
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Development

  • Bars 126-146: Sounds very contrasting due partly to new chromatic harmony. The B-B# in the violin part in the bars leading up to Bar 145 are starting to move to a more remote key (C# minor) and there are a lot of C# minor  V chords (G#BD#). At Bar 146 there is an E in the base (C# minor chord in 1st inversion).
  • Bars 147-193: In Bar 149 there is a V7-Ib chord progression. The key entered is G# minor (the dominant of C# minor). Over bars 151-152 there is a V-I chord progression. At Bars 153-154 we enter F# minor and then at Bars 155-156 the key becomes E major. This is a backwards cycle of 5ths but goes in a descending sequence not in order. After 2 bars of E major the G#s become natural modulating to E minor. At Bars 170-175 the harmony increases in complexity: there is a 1st inversion of E minor at Bars 171-172, then at Bar 173 E#s are introduced as well as an augmented 6th chord that really wants to resolve. If the G descended by a semitone and the E# sharpens as it does we have F#s and therefore we resolve to F# major. The major key creates a feeling of arrival at somewhere new. An F# pedal is introduced and at Bar 180 this moves us into the key of B minor. D major is the relative major of B minor so we are working our way back to the home key. At Bars 184-185a rising scale in the bass lands on A at Bar 186. This becomes an A pedal (i.e a dominant pedal of D major). We feel we are building with chromatic risings which create tension and then D major returns at Bar 194.
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Recapitulation and Coda

  • First subject (bars 194-209): In the recapitulation there is no modulation to the dominant, everything remains in the home key. Haydn has to make sure this happens so moves through the cycle of 5ths and instead of landing in A he returns to D. The Flutes and Oboes harmonise then clash and become a suspended 7th , they then resolve to the next chord and the pattern is repeated. This starts of at one note per bar but at Bar 225 it becomes two notes per bar.
  • Bar 227 onwards: As Haydn uses the same melody for both subjects he faces a pproblem as he cannot modulate t create variation.The second subject comes in at Bar 248 in 3rds.
  • Coda: D major scales used- it sounds happy.
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