Types and Components of a Computer System

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Hardware

HARDWARE

  • all the physical parts of a computer that you can see, touch and pick up 
  • either external or internal 
  • it works with computer code 

 examples

  • mouse
  • keyboard 
  • mointer
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Software

SOFTWARE

  • coded programs that control how to computer works 
  • cannont be touched or picked up
  • without it most hardwares would be useless
  • 2 types of software = application software and system software

Application software 

  • Word Procesor eg. word
  • Spreadsheets eg.excel 

 System software: This type of software includes operating systems and different utilities to allow your system to run smoothly. System software often manages the computer's resources. 

  • Graphic Drivers 
  • Debuggers to identify system errors 
  • Compression Software 
  • Encryption Software 
  • Disk Check 
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Main Components of a Computer System

Input devices 

  • keyboard, mouse 

Output devices 

  • monitor 
  • printer

Secondary Storage Devices 

  • DVD
  • R/W drive
  • removable hard disk drive
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Internal Hardware : Central Processing Unit

Central Processing Unit (CPU)

  • interprets and executes the commands from the computer hardware and software
  • it used to be of discrete componets combiend toghter on circuit boards
  • now its referred to as microporcessor 

Mircoprocessor 

  • is a single integrated circuit which is the heart of most PC's
  • found in many household devices eg. car egine 
  • controls the input and out put devices through the ALU
  • ALU- carries out calculations and makes logical descions and the immediate acces store 
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Internal Hardware : Internal Hard Disk Drive

Internal Hard Disk Drive (HDD)

  • is the computers main internal storage 
  • appilcation software, disk operating systems and files are stored

Main advantages

  • fast data transfer
  • fast acces times
  •  their large capacity to store data 
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Internal Hardware : Random Access Memory

Random Access Memory (RAM)

  • is an internal chip were data is temporairly stored when running applications 
  • memory can be written to read 
  • its refered to as Violate or temporary memory
  • when turned off losses all its data 
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Internal Hardware : Read-Only Memory

Read-Only Memory  (ROM)

  • is a memory used to store information that needs to be permanent 
  • its often used to contain  data
  • they cannont be altered 
  • can only be read

Main Advantages 

  • its stored on the Rom Chip
  • dosent lose stuff even when power is turned off
  • contains BOOT file, tells us what to do when it turns on
  • BIOS- stoes data, time and system configuration
  • COMS is usually battery powered  
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Operating Systems

operating tasks

  • contol the opertation of the imput
  • Supervise the loading, running and storage of application programs 
  • deals with errors
  • maintains security 
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User Interfaces : Command Line Interface

Command Line Interface (CLI)

  • requires a user to type in instructions 
  • the user therefore has to learn a number of commands just to carry out basic operations
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User Interfaces : Graphical User Interface

Graphical User Interface (GUI)

  • allows user to interact with a computer 
  • using pictures or icons 

WIMP

  • windows
  • icons
  • menu 
  • pointing 

POST-WIMP 

  • interaction, where fingers are in contact with  the screen
  • pinching, rotating 
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User Interfaces : Differences

CLI

Adantages 

  • direct communitcation 
  • user is not restricted 
  • possible to alter seetings

Disadvantages 

  • user needs to learn a number of basic operations
  • all commands need to be typed
  • its difficult to edit once commands are entered 
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PC/Desktop Computer

its made up of a seperate moniter, keyboard and mouse

Advantages 

  • spare parts
  • less likely to be dameged 
  • internet acess is more stable
  • better specification 

Disadvantages 

  • not portable
  • more complicated 
  • harder to move files from one place to another
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Laptop Computers

is where all the components are put toghter inseide the machine, this makes them portable 

  • light weight 
  • lower powerr consumption 
  • processor shouldnt generate to much heat

Advantages 

  • portable
  • light weight 
  • simpler to use 
  • everything is in one place

Disadvantages 

  • easier to steal
  • limited battery life
  • awkard to use 
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Tablets

they are 

  • touchscreen 
  • dont use a keyboard
  • wifi or 3g/4g
  • cameras
  • bluetooth
  • lower weight 
  • battery life
  • phablet-slightly smaller screens

Advantages 

  • very fast to turn on
  • touchscreen
  • fully portable
  • longer battery life

Disadvantages

  • limited memory 
  • expensive to run 
  • touchtyping can be slow and error prone
  • transferring flles can be done throguh stores
  • cant run softwares as well as laptops 
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Smartphones

they can 

  • run a number of computer applications
  • send and recieve emails 
  • take photos
  • communicate
  • surf the internent
  • sytream videos
  • stream music 
  • instant messaging 

Advantages 

  • small in size and weight 
  • make phone call as well as connect to the internet
  • used almost everywhere
  • resonable battery life

Disadvantages 

  • small screens make it hard to read
  • web browsing and photography drain battery
  • memeory size isnt as large 
  • data transfere is slower 
  • lose it easier 
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Smartwatches

they can 

  • do the same as smartphones
  • use bluetooth 
  • intternet connectivity 
  • ability to take and make phone calls
  • messaging via text or video 
  • fitnees and health 
  • Gps

Advantages

  • more convientent than smarthohones
  • very easy to use

Disadvantages

  • relatively large and bulky
  • tend to be rather unattractive
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Mainframe Computers

its used in commercial buisnesses,eg banking 

main features

  • several cpu's
  • fast proccesor speeds
  • mutiple operating systems
  • huge amounts of storage capacity
  • huge internal memories 
  • time sharring or batch processing
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Emerging Technologies : Artificial Intelligence

Is a Identfication Softwear which uses finger print and facial regonition softwears, they dont always work because if you dont out yuour fingers on correctly it might not reconisg you as if you grow old or wear glassses facial regontion might not always pck it up 

ex) they may ask you in custems to uses finger print regiontion to see if its actually you 

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Emerging Technologies : Vision enhancement

low-vision enchancer- is used to allow images to be projected inside the headset in front of the eyes. , this effiectavily brings objects closer fir eamination by the user of the system 

Night vision enchanment-amplifies infared light and visibler light so that an image can be seen on apparent darkness eg)military uses it to carry out surviellence at night 

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Emerging Technologies : Robotics

is used in industries and factories to build or help with things humans find hard 

a Drone is one type of robot, used by eveyone, its surveys llandscap takes pictures of houses of videos things from above

A surgical Robot is another type of robot which is used to help docotros preform complex procedures with more procession flexibilty and control than standard techniques ], it has cameras and joints that move like humans.

eg) used in car factories to help welc car bodies or sprahy body pannels or fit items such as windscreens 

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Emerging Technologies : Quantum Cryptography

is the science of making a message unintelligable to any unauthorised user eg) a hacker

this is usful for a while but then but then once the cyptography is old its easier to hack 

its based on the use of photons, and thier physical properties to produce virtually unbreakable cryotgraphy system

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Emerging Technologies : Computer-Assisted translat

it

  • exists online as a language translator 
  • it translates sentences and other things but can never convert the true message over as it understands it in a different way 
  • another name is CAT

Cat

  • tries to overcome that issure by :
  • making them learn +grow 
  • have a memorie 
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Emerging Technologies :3-D and Holographic Imagery

holography is a techology that allows 3d images to be produced 

the techionlogy involves 

  • a source of laser light 
  • interferance of light
  • light diffraction
  • light intensity recording 

as a holgraphic image rotates it apperas to move. 

its reflected offf the object on to a photographic plate 

holographics have appplications

  • engerniring desgin 
  • architercure 
  • medical imaging 
  • cinema,gaming effects
  • stimulatios
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Emerging Technologies : Virtual Reality

is an artificial enviroment created by  softwear 

the user makes data googles,sensor suits or helmets to get a feeling of reality 

its used it training and gaming  and educational 

as this makes you feel more emursed as if you were actually there with a bomb and had to demantel it before it exploded or in a shootng game and where trying o kill someone or in a history lesson exploring a castle

its used in 

  • education and healthcare
  • games and military
  • fashion- to see what it will look like and make changes 
  • heritage - show monuments
  • business- training courses 
  • engerniring and scientific visualation 
  • sport and media
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Mail Merge

is a procees used to create personolised email or preadressed emails. you make it in word. they are used to se time and make writing a bunch of emails quicker to write as you dont need to remeber their details 

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Application Software

Programs that allow the user to do specific tasks 

Word Procesor 

  • manipulates text documents 
  • creats and edits 
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Application Software

Programs that allow the user to do specific tasks 

Word Procesor 

  • manipulates text documents 
  • creats and edits 
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Application Software

Programs that allow the user to do specific tasks 

Word Procesor 

  • manipulates text documents 
  • creats and edits 
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