Growth of the Nazi Party: How Hitler became Chancellor Edexcel History 2A

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Key points/people

  • Presidential elections
    • March 1932
    • April 1932
  • Heinrich Bruning
  • Franz von Papen
  • President Hindenburg
  • Kurt von Schleicher
  • Adolf Hitler
  • Majority in Reichstag.
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Key events- 1

  • March 1932- Hitler stands for presidential elections and gets 11 million votes. Hindenburg gets 18 million, Communist leader Ernst Thallman gets 5 million-no majoriy, no president elected.
  • April 1932, the 2nd elections. Hinden burg is re-elected with 19 million votes, but Hitler gets 13 million and the communists just 4 million.
  • Bruning was sacked as chancellor in April 1932, because ambitious General Kurt von Schleicher (right wing), organised a coalition of right wings and persuaded Hindenburg to sack Bruning-so von Schleicher now controlled the new government from behind the scenes.
  • Von Papen becomes chancellor in May 1932-he is an ex-army general. The Nazis are given a place in the coalition part of the German government.
  • July- Nazis gain 230 seatsin the Reichstag and are the largest party. Hitler demands chancellorship but Hindenburg refuses.
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Key events- 2

  • In November, von Papen calls more elections-the Nazis get 196 seats but are still the largest part, and without Hitler's support, von Papen can't control a majority, so he resigns.
  • Von Schleicher becomes chancellor in December 1932, when Hindenburg resists pressure from leading businessmen to appoint Hitler chancellor. Von Scleicher failed to control a majority, and asked Hindenburg to establish a military dictatorship, which was refused. Von Schleicher is forced to resign.
  • Meanwhile, von Papen and Hitler plot together.
  • January 1933- Hitler becomes chancellor; von Papen managed to convince Hindenburg that if he was appointed vice-chancellor, then von Papen and Hindenburg could make all the decisions themselves, with Hitler as the figurehead. Hinden reluctantly agreed.
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