Grouping texts

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  • Created by: charlie
  • Created on: 02-05-14 10:52

Mode

The medium of communication

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Oppositional view

Suggesting the qualities of the mode are strictly opposites 

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Continuum

A way of representing differences by placing texts along a line showing degrees of various features

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Prototype

a 'best fit' example of a particular category

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Sub-mode

A sub-division of a mode

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Genre

The category or type of text

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Type

A form of text

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Multimodal texts

Texts that combine word, image and sound to produce meaning

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Context

The situation in which a text is received 

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Context of reception

Situation in which the text is read that might change reader's interpretation 

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Actual reader

Readers who engage in text

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Implied reader

Person the producer had in mind when writing

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Implied writer

A constructed image of the writer by the reader

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purpose

Why the text is produced

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Idiolect

An individual's style of speaking

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Sociolect

A defined use of language in a social group

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discourse community

a group of people with shared values towards reading

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Register

Formality of the text

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Tenor

relationship between text producer and receiver 

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dialect

Language variety in a geographical region or social background.

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Accent

Specific way words are pronounced in a geographical region

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Standard english

Universally accepted dialect of English

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Specialist register

set of lexical and grammatical constructions for a particular group 

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Jargon

Specialist terminology

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Colloquialism

 Informal terms used in everyday language

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Slang

Colloquial language particular to a group

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Metalanguage

technical terms that describes how language operates 

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lexis

vocabulary framework

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Semantics

Meaning framework

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Textual cohesion

How the text is logically structured 

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Subject pronoun

Actor in a verbal process 

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Object pronoun

affected by a verb process 

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possessive pronoun

demonstrates ownership

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Lexical words

Words that carry explicit meaning

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functional words

highlights relationships between other words 

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Material processes

describing actions or events 

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Relational processes

Describing states of being and attributes 

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mental process

perception, thoughts and speech

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dynamic verbs

the situation described by verb processes changes over time

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Stative processes

State of affairs 

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Base form

Simple form of an adjective

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Comparative

comparing two items 

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Superlative

adjectives with most or -est

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Referencing

lexical items replace those already mentioned or about to be mentioned 

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anaphoric referencing

referencing back 

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cataphoric referencing

referencing forward 

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Substitution

Replacing of lexical items 

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ellipsis

missing out words in a sentence 

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denotation

dictionary meaning 

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connotation

associated meaning 

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semantic/lexical field

lexical items similar in meaning and properties 

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synonymy

Similar semantic value 

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antonymy

opposite meaning 

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hyponymy

hierarchial structure between lexical items 

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euphemism

socially acceptable word or phrase to replace distasteful words or phrases 

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dysphemism

harsh, taboo term

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Morphology

The formation of words from morphemes 

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Morphemes

Smalllest unit of grammatical meaning 

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Prescriptive approach

How language ought to be structured 

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Descriptive approach

Actual language use 

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Noun phrase

Group of words centered around head noun

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constituent structure

key components of a phrase

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Pre-modification

Modifying before head noun

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Modifier

qualifies the sense of a noun

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post-modification

modifying after head noun

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prepositional phrase

preposition + noun phrase

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Main verb

details main process in a verb phrase

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auxiliary verb

supports another 

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negating particle

forms negative construction

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Obligatory component

main verb

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optional component

additional part of verb phrase

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Primary auxiliary

denotes tense changes 

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Modal auxiliary

expresses possibility

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semi-auxiliary

combination of primary auxiliary and other verb part

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catenative

verbs in a chain

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actor

responsible for action

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agency

responsible for cause of action

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adjectival phrase

adjective is head 

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adverbial phrase

adverb is head 

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clause

lexical items centered around verb phrase 

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clause patterns

using different types of clauses for effect 

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double-object construction

clause with verb that has two objects 

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distransitive verb

requires two objects to form double-object construction

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monotransitive verb

requires one object 

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intransitive verb

no object 

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simple sentences

single main clause 

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compound sentence

two or more main clauses with coordinating conjuctions or punctuation

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Coordinating conjunctions

words that link clauses to form compound sentences 

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Complex sentence

a sentence with a main clause and subordinate/dependant clause

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main clause

can stand alone independently 

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subordinate clause

dependent on another to complete full meaning

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compound-complex sentence

Contains two or more main clauses and one or more subordinating clauses 

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Subordinating conjunctions

link the main clause to subordinating clauses in complex sentences 

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Utterance

group of spoken words roughly equivalent to a sentence 

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lexical onomatopoeia

similarity between sound and meaning in actual lexical items 

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alliteration

words beginning with same sound 

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assonance

repetition of vowel sounds 

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consonance

repetition of consonant sounds 

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phonological manipulation

playing with sounds and effects 

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homophone

a word that sounds the same as another 

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phonemic substitution

replacing of phonemes for effect 

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cooperative principle

communication is cooperative 

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deixis

point towards something and place words in context 

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typography

font type, size, colour etc

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cultural model

organisational structure based on agreed criteria from groups of people

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convention

agreed or shared feature 

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Narrative categories

Abstract 

Orientation

Complicating action

Resolution

Evaluation

Coda 

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External evaluation

evaluation outside narrative sequence 

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internal evaluation

occuring at the same time as events in narrative sequence 

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intensifying evaluation

adding detail and vividness

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explicative evaluation

explaining reasons for narrative events 

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conversational analysis

analysis of structure and features of a conversation 

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Adjacency pair

two utterances by speakers that have a natural logical link

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exchange structure

a series of turns between speakers 

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Turn-taking

Sharing of speaking roles 

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IRF

Tridaic structure in speech that allows first speaker to feed back on response of sencond speaker 

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insertion sequence

an additional sequence in exchange structure body

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Transition relevance point

a point where it is natural for another speaker to take a turn

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Topic management

control of conversation

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powerful participants

those who hold status in a conversation

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