Fear and hatred of strangers
- claims that it has been documented in 'virtually every group of animals displaying higher forms of social organisation.'
- Natural selection favours genes that are intolerant to outsiders
- adaptive to exaggerate negative stereotypes of outsiders
- overperception of threat would be less costly than its underperception
Huntington and Turner
- Territorial behaviour is common in non human animals
- who show threat diaplays towards outsiders and attack with greater vigour when defending a home territory
Human equivilant - displays in sports teams prior to a match
e.g. Samoan rugby teams manu siva tau war chants
AO2 Hungarian football crowds
- violent incidents based on racist or xenophobic attitudes
- observed in all stadia
IDA 'My friend is a foreigner'
Power of xenophobia to invoke violence
Motivated football clubs to take steps to minimise it's violence
Germany - all teams played in shirts displaying the slogan 'my friend is a foreigner'
AO2 Home advantage
Evidence for the support of territorial displays
- among football fans crowd support was seen as the most significant factor contributing to a home advantage.
- Home fans felt responsible for inspiring their team and distracting their opponants.
Pollard & Pollard
- Crowd size may not be as important as the effect has been shown in smaller crowds
Function of crowd displays is unclear - psych up home team or distract opponants?
AO1 Evolutionary explanations
Group displays evolved because of the adaptive benefits for the individual and their offspring
AO1 Sexual selection
- men compete for mates
Divale and Harris
- it is those who do well in battle are rewarded with access to females
- naturalistic observation - tribe in the amazon rainforest
- displays of aggression are attractive to females
- male warriors tend to have more sexual partners - reproductive benefit
AO2 Youth gang members
support for the sexual selection explanation
Palmer and Tilley
- male youth gang members have more sexual partners than other males
supporting evidence that those who display more aggressive behaviour tend to have a greater reproductive success
AO2 Explaining torture
limitations of the evolutionary explanations of warfare
Explanations of aggressive display based on mating success or status fail to explain the extreme cruelty found in many human conflicts but not in non human species
- not understood why humans torture or mutilate their opponants when they no longer pose a threat
Evolutionary explanations cannot be applied to all human behaviours
AO2 Gender bias
- limited to the behaviour of males rather than females
- women would have less to gain from fighting in near death situations
- more to lose in terms of their reproductive capacity
Theory is androcentric and lacking validity